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This work aims to provide a review of the routing protocols in the Internet of Vehicles (IoV) from routing algorithms to their evaluation approaches. We provide five different taxonomies of routing protocols. First, we classify them based on their transmission strategy into three categories: unicast, geocast, and broadcast ones. Second, we classify them(More)
In order to improve some fundamental problems of the clonal selection algorithm (CSA), a novel clonal selection algorithm (NCSA) is proposed. After analyzing the mechanism of the clonal selection and proposing the antibody model, the basic character of the application problem fused into the NCSA based on rearrangements of antibody molecule coding genes.(More)
This paper presents an algorithm based on an artificial immune system to minimize the multiple-valued logic (MVL) functions. In the proposed algorithm, the length of antibody (solution) is adaptive in order to reduce the computational complexity. The affinity function is designed to consist of two metrics (correctness and optimality) so that the average(More)
To explain the essential features such as sufficient diversity, discrimination of self and non-self, and also long-lasting immunologic memory of adaptive immune responses, Burnet and Talmage developed the clonal selection theory. In their model, only the high affinity immune cells are selected to proliferate. Those cells with low affinity must be(More)
Gravitational search algorithm (GSA) has gained increasing attention in dealing with complex optimization problems. Nevertheless it still has some drawbacks, such as slow convergence and the tendency to become trapped in local minima. Chaos generated by the logistic map, with the properties of ergodicity and stochasticity, has been used to combine with GSA(More)