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Insomnia is a common symptom, not only in the adult population but also in many astronauts. Hypnotics, such as temazepam (a benzodiazepine) and zolpidem (an imidazopyridine), are often taken to relieve insomnia. Temazepam has been shown clinically to have hemodynamic side effects, particularly in the elderly; however, the mechanism is not clear. Zolpidem(More)
BACKGROUND During stand/tilt tests after spaceflight, 20% of astronauts experience orthostatic hypotension and presyncope. Spaceflight-induced hypovolemia is a contributing factor. Fludrocortisone, a synthetic mineralocorticoid, has been shown to increase plasma volume and orthostatic tolerance in Earth-bound patients. The efficacy of fludrocortisone as a(More)
INTRODUCTION Astronauts experience both orthostatic hypotension and space motion sickness during re-entry. Midodrine, an alpha1-adrenergic agonist, is used to treat orthostatic hypotension. Promethazine, a histamine H1-receptor antagonist, is prescribed for space motion sickness. Many astronauts need both midodrine and promethazine. This study evaluated the(More)
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