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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of gene expression in development and stress responses in most eukaryotes. We globally profiled plant miRNAs in response to infection of bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst). We sequenced 13 small-RNA libraries constructed from Arabidopsis at 6 and 14 h post infection of non-pathogenic, virulent and(More)
Argonaute (AGO) proteins are critical components of RNA silencing pathways that bind small RNAs and mediate gene silencing at their target sites. We found that Arabidopsis AGO2 is highly induced by the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst). Further genetic analysis demonstrated that AGO2 functions in antibacterial immunity. One abundant(More)
Small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), are essential regulatory molecules of many cellular processes. Arabidopsis has at least three classes of endogenous siRNAs--chromatin-associated siRNAs, trans-acting siRNAs (tasiRNAs), and natural antisense transcript (NAT)-associated siRNAs (nat-siRNAs)--all 20-25 nucleotides(More)
Ethylene (C(2)H(4)) is a unique plant-signaling molecule that regulates numerous developmental processes. The key enzyme in the two-step biosynthetic pathway of ethylene is 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS), which catalyzes the conversion of S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) to ACC, the precursor of ethylene. To understand the function of this(More)
Many basic cellular processes are shared across vast phylogenetic distances, whereas sex-determining mechanisms are highly variable between phyla although the existence of two sexes is nearly universal in the animal kingdom. The only molecular similarity in sex determination found so far between phyla is among the fly doublesex, worm mab-3, and vertebrate(More)
Morphologically distinct males and females are observed throughout the animal kingdom. Why and how sex evolved and is maintained in most living organisms remains a key question in cellular and evolutionary biology. Here we report that four isoforms of dmrt1 (dsx- and mab3-related transcription factor 1) are generated in testis, ovotestis, and ovary by(More)
Failures are normal rather than exceptional in the cloud computing environments. To improve system availability, replicating the popular data to multiple suitable locations is an advisable choice, as users can access the data from a nearby site. This is, however, not the case for replicas which must have a fixed number of copies on several locations. How to(More)
Arabidopsis microRNA (miRNA) genes (MIR) give rise to 20- to 22-nt miRNAs that are generated predominantly by the type III endoribonuclease Dicer-like 1 (DCL1) but do not require any RNA-dependent RNA Polymerases (RDRs) or RNA Polymerase IV (Pol IV). Here, we identify a novel class of non-conserved MIR genes that give rise to two small RNA species, a 20- to(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which originate from precursor transcripts with stem-loop structures, are essential gene expression regulators in eukaryotes. We report 19 miRNA precursors in Arabidopsis that can yield multiple distinct miRNA-like RNAs in addition to miRNAs and miRNA*s. These miRNA precursor-derived miRNA-like RNAs are often arranged in phase and form(More)
Many eukaryotic genomes encode cis-natural antisense transcripts (cis-NATs). Sense and antisense transcripts may form double-stranded RNAs that are processed by the RNA interference machinery into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). A few so-called nat-siRNAs have been reported in plants, mammals, Drosophila, and yeasts. However, many questions remain(More)