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Evidence suggests that certain reproductive factors are more strongly associated with the incidence of lobular than of ductal breast cancer. The mechanisms influencing breast cancer incidence histology may also affect survival. Women with invasive breast cancer (N = 22,302) diagnosed during 1986-2005 were enrolled in a series of population-based studies in(More)
OBJECTIVE It has been hypothesized that changes in diagnostic practices have driven the dramatic rise in thyroid cancer incidence over the past two decades. This study investigated the relation between the incidence of thyroid cancer and socioeconomic indicators of health care access. METHODS We examined thyroid cancer incidence trends in Wisconsin, USA,(More)
BACKGROUND Late age at first full-term birth and nulliparity are known to increase breast cancer risk. The frequency of these risk factors has increased in recent decades. METHODS The purpose of this population-based case-control study was to examine associations between parity, age at first birth (AFB), and specific histological subtypes of breast(More)
BACKGROUND Observational epidemiological studies have shown that high body mass index (BMI) is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women but an increased risk in postmenopausal women. It is unclear whether this association is mediated through shared genetic or environmental factors. METHODS We applied Mendelian randomization(More)
BACKGROUND Genome-wide association studies have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with breast cancer risk. Some of these loci have unknown functional significance and may mediate the effects of hormonal exposures on breast cancer risk. We examined relationships between breast cancer susceptibility variants and(More)
General obesity, typically measured using body mass index (BMI), has been associated with an increased risk of several cancers. However, few prospective studies have been conducted in Asian populations. Although central obesity, often measured using waist-hip ratio (WHR), is more predictive for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk than(More)
PURPOSE The reproductive windows between age at menarche and age at first birth (standardized age at first birth) and from menarche to menopause (reproductive lifespan) may interact with genetic variants in association with breast cancer risk. METHODS We assessed this hypothesis in 6131 breast cancer cases and 7274 controls who participated in the(More)
Background: Previous studies rarely evaluated the associations between vitamin D-binding protein and free vitamin D with colorectal cancer risk. We assessed these biomarkers and total 25-hydroxyvitamin D in relation to colorectal cancer risk in a sample of African Americans.Methods: Cases comprised 224 African American participants of the Southern Community(More)
BACKGROUND The American Cancer Society (ACS) publishes behavioral guidelines for cancer prevention, including standards on body weight, physical activity, nutrition, alcohol, and tobacco use. The impact of these guidelines has been rarely studied in low-income and African American populations. METHODS The study included 61,098 racially diverse, mainly(More)
Asians have high prevalence of central obesity despite the low prevalence of general obesity. We evaluated associations between the central obesity measure, waist-hip ratio (WHR) with total and cause-specific mortality in middle-aged and elderly Chinese participants. Data arise from two prospective population-based cohort studies: the Shanghai Men's Health(More)