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Evidence suggests that certain reproductive factors are more strongly associated with the incidence of lobular than of ductal breast cancer. The mechanisms influencing breast cancer incidence histology may also affect survival. Women with invasive breast cancer (N = 22,302) diagnosed during 1986-2005 were enrolled in a series of population-based studies in(More)
OBJECTIVE It has been hypothesized that changes in diagnostic practices have driven the dramatic rise in thyroid cancer incidence over the past two decades. This study investigated the relation between the incidence of thyroid cancer and socioeconomic indicators of health care access. METHODS We examined thyroid cancer incidence trends in Wisconsin, USA,(More)
BACKGROUND Late age at first full-term birth and nulliparity are known to increase breast cancer risk. The frequency of these risk factors has increased in recent decades. METHODS The purpose of this population-based case-control study was to examine associations between parity, age at first birth (AFB), and specific histological subtypes of breast(More)
BACKGROUND Genome-wide association studies have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with breast cancer risk. Some of these loci have unknown functional significance and may mediate the effects of hormonal exposures on breast cancer risk. We examined relationships between breast cancer susceptibility variants and(More)
General obesity, typically measured using body mass index (BMI), has been associated with an increased risk of several cancers. However, few prospective studies have been conducted in Asian populations. Although central obesity, often measured using waist-hip ratio (WHR), is more predictive for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk than(More)
PURPOSE The reproductive windows between age at menarche and age at first birth (standardized age at first birth) and from menarche to menopause (reproductive lifespan) may interact with genetic variants in association with breast cancer risk. METHODS We assessed this hypothesis in 6131 breast cancer cases and 7274 controls who participated in the(More)
BACKGROUND Observational epidemiological studies have shown that high body mass index (BMI) is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in premenopausal women but an increased risk in postmenopausal women. It is unclear whether this association is mediated through shared genetic or environmental factors. METHODS We applied Mendelian randomization(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies rarely evaluated the associations between vitamin D binding protein and free vitamin D with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. We assessed these biomarkers and total 25-hydroxyvitamin D in relation to CRC risk in a sample of African Americans. METHODS Cases comprised 224 African American participants of the Southern Community Cohort(More)
BACKGROUND The American Cancer Society (ACS) publishes behavioral guidelines for cancer prevention, including standards on body weight, physical activity, nutrition, alcohol, and tobacco use. The impact of these guidelines has been rarely studied in low-income and African American populations. METHODS The study included 61,098 racially diverse, mainly(More)
We evaluated whether 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in genome-wide association studies interact with one another and with reproductive and menstrual risk factors in association with breast cancer risk. DNA samples and information on parity, breastfeeding, age at menarche, age at first birth, and age at menopause were collected through(More)