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Clinical studies demonstrate that estrogen replacement therapy in postmenopausal women may enhance cognitive function and reduce neurodegeneration associated with Alzheimer's disease and stroke. This study assesses whether physiologic levels of estradiol prevent brain injury in an in vivo model of permanent focal ischemia. Sprague-Dawley rats were(More)
Estradiol protects against brain injury, neurodegeneration, and cognitive decline. Our previous work demonstrates that physiological levels of estradiol protect against stroke injury and that this protection may be mediated through receptor-dependent alterations of gene expression. In this report, we tested the hypothesis that estrogen receptors play a(More)
Estradiol enhances plasticity and survival of the injured brain. Our previous work demonstrates that physiological levels of estradiol protect against cerebral ischemia in the young and aging brain through actions involving estrogen receptors (ERs) and alterations in gene expression. The major goal of this study was to establish mechanisms of(More)
Neurogenesis persists throughout life under normal and degenerative conditions. The adult subventricular zone (SVZ) generates neural stem cells capable of differentiating to neuroblasts and migrating to the site of injury in response to brain insults. In the present study, we investigated whether estradiol increases neurogenesis in the SVZ in an animal(More)
Estradiol is a known neurotrophic and neuroprotective factor. Our previous work demonstrated that replacement with physiological concentrations of estradiol protects the cortex against middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced cell death. The cerebral cortex exhibits caspase-dependent programmed cell death (PCD) in many models of focal cerebral(More)
Our appreciation that estrogens are important neurotrophic and neuroprotective factors has grown rapidly. Although a thorough understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms that underlie this effect requires further investigation, significant progress has been made due to the availability of animal models in which we can test potential candidates.(More)
We have shown that 17beta-estradiol exerts profound protective effects against stroke-like ischemic injury in female rats. These effects are evident using physiological levels of estradiol replacement in ovariectomized rats and require hormone treatment prior to the time of injury. The protective actions of estradiol appear to be most prominent in the(More)
Estrogens are essential for normal reproductive function. In addition, they exert important, complex, and diverse nonreproductive actions on multiple tissues. Although accumulating evidence from basic science studies using animal models suggests that estradiol plays a critical neuroprotective role against multiple types of neurodegenerative diseases and(More)
An accumulating body of evidence clearly establishes that estradiol is a potent neuroprotective and neurotrophic factor in the adult: it influences memory and cognition, decreases the risk and delays the onset of neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, and attenuates the extent of cell death that results from brain injuries such as(More)
The menopause marks the end of a woman's reproductive life. During the postmenopausal period, plasma estrogen concentrations decrease dramatically and remain low for the rest of her life, unless she chooses to take hormone replacement therapy. During the past 20 years, we have learned that changes in the central nervous system are associated with and may(More)