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Theory of Mind (ToM), the ability to attribute mental states to others, and empathy, the ability to infer emotional experiences, are important processes in social cognition. Brain imaging studies in healthy subjects have described a brain system involving medial prefrontal cortex, superior temporal sulcus and temporal pole in ToM processing. Studies(More)
Changes in serotonin neurotransmission have also been implicated in the etiology and treatment of impulse control disorders, depression, and anxiety. We have investigated the effect of enhancing serotonin function on fundamental brain processes that we have proposed are abnormal in these disorders. In all, 12 male volunteers received citalopram (7.5 mg(More)
CONTEXT Ketamine evokes psychosislike symptoms, and its primary action is to impair N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor neurotransmission, but it also induces secondary increases in glutamate release. OBJECTIVES To identify the sites of action of ketamine in inducing symptoms and to determine the role of increased glutamate release using the glutamate(More)
This study investigated the serotonergic modulation of face emotion processing using blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional MRI. In a placebo-controlled, balanced order design, intravenous citalopram (7.5 mg) was given to 12 male volunteers 60 min before a covert face emotion recognition task. Angry, disgusted and fearful faces produced BOLD signal(More)
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is implicated in the aetiology and treatment of a variety of psychiatric disorders. A limitation of research has been the necessity to use indirect measures of 5-HT function. We describe a method of analysing pharmacoMRI data using SPM and apply it to the direct i.v. infusion of selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor,(More)
Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) examines the spontaneous low frequency neural activity of the brain to reveal networks of correlated neural activity. A number of different methodologies, each with its own advantages and disadvantages, have been used to examine networks of neural activity that may be related to clinical(More)
A number of novel ways of using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualise the action of drugs on animal and human brain (pharmacoMRI or phMRI) are becoming established tools in translational psychopharmacology. Using drugs with known pharmacology it is possible to investigate how neurotransmitter systems are involved in neural systems engaged by other(More)
BACKGROUND The nosological status of auditory hallucinations in non-clinical samples is unclear. AIMS To investigate the functional neural basis of non-clinical hallucinations. METHOD After selection from 1206 people, 68 participants of high, medium and low hallucination proneness completed a task designed to elicit verbal hallucinatory phenomena under(More)
Serotonin (5-HT) has been implicated in the aetiology of a number of psychiatric conditions, including depression, anxiety and antisocial personality disorder. The development of these disorders may arise from alterations in underlying motivational and cognitive processes such as emotional recognition, reinforcement processing and central inhibitory(More)
Reduced hippocampal volume has been reported in depression and may be involved in the aetiology of depressive symptoms and vulnerability to depressive relapse. Neuroplasticity following antidepressant drug treatment in the hippocampus has been demonstrated in animal models but adaptive changes after such treatment have not been shown in humans. In this(More)