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The current studies evaluate granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) as a vaccine adjuvant. An important issue for developing vaccine therapy for human malignancy is identifying adjuvants that can elicit T-cell responses to proteins and peptides derived from "self" tumor antigens. GM-CSF, in vitro, stimulates the growth of… (More)
HER-2/neu, an overexpressed oncogenic protein, has been proposed as a human cancer vaccine target. HER-2/neu is a "self" protein, however, and methods of vaccine strategies that would be effective in immunizing patients to a "self" tumor Ag have not been established. Many of the tumor Ags defined in humans are nonmutated self proteins, e.g., MAGE, and… (More)
No part may be reprexh,ced by any process w'thoul Wr1U~n rNTRODUCTION In the past there was much speculation as to the existence of tumor antigens because the molecular etiology of cancer was a mystery. The molecular changes associated with malignant transformation have now either been defined or are definable by current methods. Malignant transformation is… (More)
Dendritic antigen-presenting cells are considered to be the most effective stimulators of T cell immunity. The use of dendritic cells has been proposed to generate therapeutic T cell responses to tumor antigens in cancer patients. One limitation is that the number of dendritic cells in peripheral blood is exceedingly low. Dendritic cells originate from… (More)
The study of oncogenic viruses led to the discovery that transforming retroviruses contain oncogenes homologous with and/or derived from cellular proto-oncogenes. In humans malignant transformation is often the result of the activation of proto-oncogenes. Normal proto-oncogenes can be activated to transforming proto-oncogenes by a variety of mechanisms… (More)
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