Shane Amante

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Load balancing is a powerful tool for engineering traffic across a network. This memo suggests ways of improving load balancing across MPLS networks using the concept of "entropy labels". It defines the concept, describes why entropy labels are useful, enumerates properties of entropy labels that allow maximal benefit, and shows how they can be signaled and(More)
This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust’s Legal Provisions Relating to IETF Documents ( in effect on the date of publication of this document. Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect to this document. Code Components extracted from this document(More)
Where the payload of a pseudowire comprises a number of distinct flows, it can be desirable to carry those flows over the Equal Cost Multiple Paths (ECMPs) that exist in the packet switched network. Most forwarding engines are able to generate a hash of the MPLS label stack and use this mechanism to balance MPLS flows over ECMPs. This document describes a(More)
BGP is a hard-state protocol that uses TCP connections to reliably exchange routing state updates between neighbor BGP routers. According to the protocol, only routing changes should trigger a BGP router to generate updates; updates that do not express any routing changes are superfluous and should not occur. Nonetheless, such ‘duplicate’ BGP updates have(More)
Various published proposals for use of the IPv6 flow label are incompatible with its original specification in RFC 3697. Furthermore, very little practical use is made of the flow label, partly due to some uncertainties about the correct interpretation of the specification. This document discusses and motivates changes to the specification in order to(More)
The original BGP design requires that all BGP speakers within an autonomous system be directly connected with each other to create a full mesh, and BGP update messages be propagated to directly connected neighbors only. This requirement leads to BGP session scalability problems in networks with large numbers of BGP routers. Route reflection was proposed as(More)
The era of free IPv4 address allocations has ended and the grey market in IPv4 addresses is now emerging. This paper argues that one cannot and should not try to regulate who sells addresses and at what price, but one does need to provide some proof of ownership in the form of resource certification. In this paper we identify key requirements of resource(More)
Although there have been a plethora of studies on TCP performance in supporting of various applications, relatively little is known about the interaction between TCP and BGP, which is a specific application running on top of TCP. This paper investigates BGP's slow route propagation by analyzing packet traces collected from a large ISP and Route Views Oregon(More)
BGP is the global routing protocol used to propagate reachability information both between and within autonomous systems. In recent years there have been many measurement studies that use BGP updates between ASes to examine BGP routing dynamics across the global Internet. However, there has been virtually no measurement studies on BGP dynamics inside(More)