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The mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) plays central and strategic roles in the control of the use of glucose-linked substrates as sources of oxidative energy or as precursors in the biosynthesis of fatty acids. The activity of this mitochondrial complex is regulated by the continuous operation of competing pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK)(More)
Four pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase and two pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase isoforms function in adjusting the activation state of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) through determining the fraction of active (nonphosphorylated) pyruvate dehydrogenase component. Necessary adaptations of PDC activity with varying metabolic requirements in different(More)
Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2 (PDK2) activity is enhanced by the dihydrolipoyl acetyltransferase core (E2 60mer) that binds PDK2 and a large number of its pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1) substrate. With E2-activated PDK2, K(+) at approximately 90 mM and Cl(-) at approximately 60 mM decreased the K(m) of PDK2 for ATP and competitive K(i) for ADP by(More)
Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2 (PDK2) activity is stimulated by NADH and NADH plus acetyl-CoA via the reduction and reductive acetylation of the lipoyl groups of the dihydrolipoyl acetyltransferase (E2) component. Elevated K(+) and Cl(-) were needed for significant stimulation. Stimulation substantially increased both k(cat) and the K(m) for ATP; the(More)
Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) isoforms 2 and 3 were produced via co-expression with the chaperonins GroEL and GroES and purified with high specific activities in affinity tag-free forms. By using human components, we have evaluated how binding to the lipoyl domains of the dihydrolipoyl acetyltransferase (E2) produces the predominant changes in the(More)
Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDHK) regulates the activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex. PDHK inhibition provides a route for therapeutic intervention in diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. We report crystal structures of human PDHK isozyme 2 complexed with physiological and synthetic ligands. Several of the PDHK2 structures(More)
Organophosphorus compounds include many synthetic, neurotoxic substances that are commonly used as insecticides. The toxicity of these compounds is due to their ability to inhibit the enzyme acetylcholine esterase. Some of the most toxic organophosphates have been adapted for use as chemical warfare agents; the most well-known are GA, GB, GD, GF, VX, and(More)
Human paraoxonase-1 (HuPON1) has been proposed as a catalytic bioscavenger of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides and nerve agents. We assessed the potential of this enzyme to protect against OP poisoning using two different paradigms. First, recombinant HuPON1 purified from cabbage loopers (iPON1; Trichoplusia ni) was administered to guinea pigs, followed by(More)
Human serum paraoxonase-1 (HuPON1) is difficult to either purify from plasma or functionally express in high yield from recombinant sources. Here, we describe the characterization of functional HuPON1 expressed and purified from Trichoplusia ni (T. ni) larvae infected with an orally active form of baculovirus. SDS-PAGE and anti-HuPON1 Western blot analyses(More)
The concept of using cholinesterase bioscavengers for prophylaxis against organophosphorous nerve agents and pesticides has progressed from the bench to clinical trial. However, the supply of the native human proteins is either limited (e.g., plasma-derived butyrylcholinesterase and erythrocytic acetylcholinesterase) or nonexisting (synaptic(More)