Shanan S. Tobe

Learn More
The phylogeny and taxonomy of mammalian species were originally based upon shared or derived morphological characteristics. However, genetic analyses have more recently played an increasingly important role in confirming existing or establishing often radically different mammalian groupings and phylogenies. The two most commonly used genetic loci in species(More)
A novel species-specific multiplex to identify 18 common European mammalian species (badger, cat, cow, dog, donkey, fox, goat, guinea pig, harvest mouse, hedgehog, horse, house mouse, human, pig, rabbit, rat, red deer and sheep), many of which are often associated with forensic investigations, has been developed. The assay is based on the mitochondrial(More)
The number of mitochondria per cell varies by cell type and the number of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genomes varies per mitochondrion. Biological samples from unknown species are encountered frequently in forensic science investigations and are often contaminated with human mtDNA making analysis difficult. Currently, no techniques to quantify non-human mtDNA(More)
Luminol, leuchomalachite green, phenolphthalein, Hemastix, Hemident, and Bluestar are all used as presumptive tests for blood. In this study, the tests were subjected to dilute blood (from 1:10,000 to 1:10,000,000), many common household substance, and chemicals. Samples were tested for DNA to determine whether the presumptive tests damaged or destroyed(More)
DNA profiles can be obtained from fabrics where a person has made direct contact with clothing. A standard approach is to cut out a section of the fabric and then use a commercially available method to extract and isolate the DNA. Alternative methods to isolate DNA include the use of adhesive tape to remove traces of cellular material from the fabric prior(More)
PURPOSE Despite their wide use, the limits of presumptive tests can be poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the specificity and sensitivity of conventional, as well as innovative, presumptive tests for blood, semen and saliva. METHODS We investigated Kastle-Meyer (KM) and leucomalachite green (LMG) tests for blood with regard to(More)
The extent of wildlife crime is unknown but it is on the increase and has observable effects with the dramatic decline in many species of flora and fauna. The growing awareness of this area of criminal activity is reflected in the increase in research papers on animal DNA testing, either for the identification of species or for the genetic linkage of a(More)
The tiger (Panthera tigris) is currently listed on Appendix I of the Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora; this affords it the highest level of international protection. To aid in the investigation of alleged illegal trade in tiger body parts and derivatives, molecular approaches have been developed to identify(More)
Current histological investigation of vaginal swabs after alleged sexual assault includes the scoring of spermatozoa (0, + to ++++) and the recording of visible tails. It is a method that is universally employed. Despite this method being used for 40 years, there has never been a study investigating its suitability for forensic science. Here, we investigate(More)
Species identification has become a tool in the investigation of acts of alleged wildlife crimes. This review details the steps required in DNA testing in wildlife crime investigations and highlights recent developments where not only can individual species be identified within a mixture of species but multiple species can be identified simultaneously.(More)