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This paper represents a comprehensive study of English loanword usage in five diverse francophone neighborhoods in the national capital region of Canada. Twenty thousand loan tokens extracted from informal conversations with 120 speakers are analyzedfor degree oflinguistic integration into French and social assimilation by the francophone community.(More)
The occurrence of code-switching, or the seemingly random alternation of two languages both between and within sentences, has been shown to be governed not only by extra-linguistic but also linguistic factors. For the balanced bilingual, code­ switching appears to be subject to an 'equivalence constraint' (Pop lack , 1978): i.e. it tends to occur at points(More)
Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic diffuse tomography has been used to map the hemoglobin concentration and the hemoglobin oxygen saturation quantitatively in tissuelike phantoms and to determine average values in vivo. A series of phantom calibrations were performed to achieve quantitatively accurate images of the absorption and the reduced scattering(More)
This article may be used for research, teaching and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution , reselling , loan or sub-licensing, systematic supply or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents(More)
Studies of language change have begun to contribute to answering several pressing questions in cognitive sciences, including the origins of human language capacity, the social construction of cognition and the mechanisms underlying culture change in general. Here, we describe recent advances within a new emerging framework for the study of language change,(More)
Though recent sociolinguistic research has made great strides in assessing the nature and extent of linguistic change over the lifespan, many questions remain. Are some linguistic levels more labile than others? Is change limited to rates, or is structure affected as well? How are outcomes shaped by the social histories of individual speakers? To address(More)