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This paper represents a comprehensive study of English loanword usage in five diverse francophone neighborhoods in the national capital region of Canada. Twenty thousand loan tokens extracted from informal conversations with 120 speakers are analyzedfor degree oflinguistic integration into French and social assimilation by the francophone community.(More)
The occurrence of code-switching, or the seemingly random alternation of two languages both between and within sentences, has been shown to be governed not only by extra-linguistic but also linguistic factors. For the balanced bilingual, code­ switching appears to be subject to an 'equivalence constraint' (Pop lack , 1978): i.e. it tends to occur at points(More)
The notion of loanword assimilation is operationalized in a number of d~flerent ways, focusing on both linguistic and social aspects. The indices of integration thus constructed are applied to a set of lexical data elicited from Puerto Ricatz children and adults from East Harlem, New York. The results of this survey are analyzed statistically using the(More)
Nonce borrowings in the speech of bilinguals differ from established loanwords in that they are not necessarily recurrent, widespread, or recognized by host language monolinguals. With established loanwords, however, they share the characteristics of morphological and syntactic integration into the host language and consist of single content words or(More)
Studies of language change have begun to contribute to answering several pressing questions in cognitive sciences, including the origins of human language capacity, the social construction of cognition and the mechanisms underlying culture change in general. Here, we describe recent advances within a new emerging framework for the study of language change,(More)
This article may be used for research, teaching and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution , reselling , loan or sub-licensing, systematic supply or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents(More)
This thesis describes MultiSphinx, a concurrent architecture for scalable, low-latency automatic speech recognition. We first consider the problem of constructing a universal " core " speech recognizer on top of which domain and task specific adaptation layers can be constructed. We then show that when this problem is restricted to that of expanding the(More)
Montréal. Il a pour mission la promotion et la valorisation de la recherche. Érudit offre des services d'édition numérique de documents scientifiques depuis 1998. Note : les règles d'écriture des références bibliographiques peuvent varier selon les différents domaines du savoir. Ce document est protégé par la loi sur le droit d'auteur. L'utilisation des(More)
Though recent sociolinguistic research has made great strides in assessing the nature and extent of linguistic change over the lifespan, many questions remain. Are some linguistic levels more labile than others? Is change limited to rates, or is structure affected as well? How are outcomes shaped by the social histories of individual speakers? To address(More)
Studies of language change have begun to contribute to answering several pressing questions in cognitive sciences, including the origins of human language capacity, the social construction of cognition and the mechanisms underlying culture change in general. Here, we describe recent advances within a new emerging framework for the study of language change,(More)
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