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The occurrence of code-switching, or the seemingly random alternation of two languages both between and within sentences, has been shown to be governed not only by extra-linguistic but also linguistic factors. For the balanced bilingual, code­ switching appears to be subject to an 'equivalence constraint' (Pop lack , 1978): i.e. it tends to occur at points(More)
This paper represents a comprehensive study of English loanword usage in five diverse francophone neighborhoods in the national capital region of Canada. Twenty thousand loan tokens extracted from informal conversations with 120 speakers are analyzedfor degree oflinguistic integration into French and social assimilation by the francophone community.(More)
Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic diffuse tomography has been used to map the hemoglobin concentration and the hemoglobin oxygen saturation quantitatively in tissuelike phantoms and to determine average values in vivo. A series of phantom calibrations were performed to achieve quantitatively accurate images of the absorption and the reduced scattering(More)
Studies of language change have begun to contribute to answering several pressing questions in cognitive sciences, including the origins of human language capacity, the social construction of cognition and the mechanisms underlying culture change in general. Here, we describe recent advances within a new emerging framework for the study of language change,(More)
‘‘And then one day I walked down the street and I realized that I felt like a minority. I felt like I was an English-speaking part of a group of Montreal and Quebec and that I was actually a minority. And it was the strangest feeling to be inside Canada that’s English, but inside Quebec that’s French. Inside Montreal or this area in English, and still be a(More)
This paper examines the trajectory of a spectacular change in the development of future temporal reference in Brazilian Portuguese over five centuries. Focusing on four competing exponents of futurity, we show how the incoming form gradually expropriates the preferred contexts of the older variants, prior to ousting them from the sector. These results(More)