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Histone H2AX promotes DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair and immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) class switch recombination (CSR) in B-lymphocytes. CSR requires activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and involves joining of DSB intermediates by end joining. We find that AID-dependent IgH locus chromosome breaks occur at high frequency in primary(More)
Mutations in XLF/Cernunnos (XLF) cause lymphocytopenia in humans, and various studies suggest an XLF role in classical nonhomologous end joining (C-NHEJ). We now find that XLF-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts are ionizing radiation (IR) sensitive and severely impaired for ability to support V(D)J recombination. Yet mature lymphocyte numbers in(More)
Supplementary figure 1 B cell development in mb1-cre mice. Supplementary figure 2 (a) Proportions of mature splenic B cells in mice lacking IKK1 and IKK2 in the B lineage. (b) Expression of CD93 on transitional (CD93 + B220 +) B cells from mb1-cre Nemo f , Nemo f and mb1-cre Ikk1 f/f Ikk2 f/f mice. Supplementary figure 3 (a) CD23 + immature B cells are(More)
Classical non-homologous DNA end-joining (NHEJ) is a major mammalian DNA double-strand-break (DSB) repair pathway. Deficiencies for classical NHEJ factors, such as XRCC4, abrogate lymphocyte development, owing to a strict requirement for classical NHEJ to join V(D)J recombination DSB intermediates. The XRCC4-like factor (XLF; also called NHEJ1) is mutated(More)
Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) deficiency predisposes humans and mice to T lineage lymphomas with recurrent chromosome 14 translocations involving the T cell receptor alpha/delta (Tcra/d) locus. Such translocations have been thought to result from aberrant repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) during Tcra locus V(D)J recombination, and to require(More)
Although p53-mediated cell cycle arrest, senescence and apoptosis are well accepted as major tumor suppression mechanisms, the loss of these functions does not directly lead to tumorigenesis, suggesting that the precise roles of these canonical activities of p53 need to be redefined. Here, we report that the cells derived from the mutant mice expressing(More)
Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) mutated (ATM) kinase orchestrates deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage responses by phosphorylating numerous substrates implicated in DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint activation. A-T patients and mouse models that express no ATM protein undergo normal embryonic development but exhibit pleiotropic DNA repair defects. In this(More)
Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is a major pathway to repair DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), which can display different types of broken ends. However, it is unclear how NHEJ factors organize to repair diverse types of DNA breaks. Here, through systematic analysis of the human NHEJ factor interactome, we identify PAXX as a direct interactor of Ku. The(More)
Classical nonhomologous end joining (C-NHEJ) is a major mammalian DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway that is required for assembly of antigen receptor variable region gene segments by V(D)J recombination. Recombination activating gene endonuclease initiates V(D)J recombination by generating DSBs between two V(D)J coding gene segments and flanking(More)
Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a protein kinase and a master regulator of DNA-damage responses. Germline ATM inactivation causes ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) syndrome with severe lymphocytopenia and greatly increased risk for T-cell lymphomas/leukemia. Both A-T and T-cell prolymphoblastic leukemia patients with somatic mutations of ATM frequently(More)