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Renal interstitial fibrosis is characterized by increased extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in kidneys is driven by regulated expression of fibrogenic cytokines such as transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β). Yam, or Dioscorea alata (DA) is an important herb in Chinese medicine widely used for the treatment of(More)
PURPOSE Extracorporeal shock wave (ESW) has been introduced to enhance spinal fusion. This study was conducted to assess the effect of ESW on bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) expression in a spinal fusion experiment. METHODS Twelve rabbits underwent fusion at bilateral L5-6 intertransverse spaces. They were evenly divided into two groups. In the study(More)
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