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The repertoire of neural activity patterns that a cortical network can produce constrains the ability of the network to transfer and process information. Here, we measured activity patterns obtained from multisite local field potential recordings in cortex cultures, urethane-anesthetized rats, and awake macaque monkeys. First, we quantified the information(More)
A small-world network has been suggested to be an efficient solution for achieving both modular and global processing-a property highly desirable for brain computations. Here, we investigated functional networks of cortical neurons using correlation analysis to identify functional connectivity. To reconstruct the interaction network, we applied the Ising(More)
We used the ratioable fluorescent dye mag-fura-5 to measure intracellular free Zn2+ ([Zn2+]i) in cultured neocortical neurons exposed to neurotoxic concentrations of Zn2+ in concert with depolarization or glutamate receptor activation and identified four routes of Zn2+ entry. Neurons exposed to extracellular Zn2+ plus high K+ responded with a peak cell body(More)
Many complex systems give rise to events that are clustered in space and time, thereby establishing a correlation structure that is governed by power law statistics. In the cortex, such clusters of activity, called "neuronal avalanches," were recently found in local field potentials (LFPs) of spontaneous activity in acute cortex slices, slice cultures, the(More)
Apoptosis of mouse neocortical neurons induced by serum deprivation or by staurosporine was associated with an early enhancement of delayed rectifier (IK) current and loss of total intracellular K+. This IK augmentation was not seen in neurons undergoing excitotoxic necrosis or in older neurons resistant to staurosporine-induced apoptosis. Attenuating(More)
Hypoxic preconditioning of stem cells and neural progenitor cells has been tested for promoting cell survival after transplantation. The present investigation examined the hypothesis that hypoxic preconditioning of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) could not only enhance their survival but also reinforce regenerative properties of these cells.(More)
In light of recent evidence implicating the upregulation of outward K+ current in mediating several forms of neuronal apoptosis, we tested the hypothesis that such an upregulation might specifically contribute to the pathogenesis of beta-amyloid peptide (A beta)-induced neuronal death. Exposure to A beta fragment 25-35 (20 microM) or 1-42 (20 microM)(More)
Neuronal death induced by activating N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors has been linked to Ca2+ and Na+ influx through associated channels. Whole-cell recording from cultured mouse cortical neurons revealed a NMDA-evoked outward current, INMDA-K, carried by K+ efflux at membrane potentials positive to -86 millivolts. Cortical neurons exposed to NMDA in(More)
Ischemic stroke is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide but effective treatments are limited. Strategies to enhance neurovascular remodeling following stroke provide promising opportunities to improve tissue repair and functional recovery. We have previously demonstrated that whisker activity promotes central angiogenesis in rodent models of(More)
Cell therapy is emerging as a viable therapy to restore neurological function after stroke. Many types of stem/progenitor cells from different sources have been explored for their feasibility and efficacy for the treatment of stroke. Transplanted cells not only have the potential to replace the lost circuitry, but also produce growth and trophic factors, or(More)