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OBJECTIVE To investigate whether needle immersed vitrification (NIV) can further lower the concentration of cryoprotective agent (CPA). DESIGN Experimental cross-sectional controlled in vitro study. SETTING University teaching hospital. PATIENT(S) Human ovarian biopsy tissues were obtained from ten women undergoing gynecology operations. (More)
Several theories of self-control [including intertemporal bargaining (Ainslie, 1992) and self-signaling (Bodner and Prelec, 2001)] imply that intertemporal decisions can be more farsighted than would be predicted by the incentive associated with rewards outside a decision context. We examined this hypothesis using behavior and functional neuroimaging.(More)
We review the key findings in the application of neuroeconomics to the study of addiction. Although there are not "bright line" boundaries between neuroeconomics and other areas of behavioral science, neuroeconomics coheres around the topic of the neural representations of "Value" (synonymous with the "decision utility" of behavioral economics).(More)
BACKGROUND Brain regions that track value (including the ventral striatum) respond more during the anticipation of immediate than delayed rewards, even when the delayed rewards are larger and equally preferred to the immediate. The anticipatory response to immediate vs. delayed rewards has not previously been examined in association with cigarette smoking.(More)
The dynamic inconsistency of preference is well documented in behavioral research, but its basis remains controversial. In this article, we summarize recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) work in the domain of intertemporal choice, specifically considering evidence bearing on the hypothesis that delay discounting in humans is determined by(More)
There is equivocal support for the hypothesis that preference for later larger (LL) over sooner smaller (SS) monetary alternatives (e.g., $50 in four months over $30 today) is associated with functioning of the insula and the prefrontal cortex (especially the lateral PFC). In the present study, we re-examined overall neural correlates of choice using a(More)
For many event-driven systems, the completeness and consistency (C&C) are the most important characteristics of those software requirements. This paper presents a systematic approach to perform C&C analysis on the requirements, and an intelligent approach to correcting the inconsistencies identified. A formal scenario model is used to represent(More)
Biodegradable cationic nanoparticles have promising application as a gene delivery system. In this article, heparin-polyethyleneimine (HPEI) nanogels were prepared, and these nanogels were developed as a nonviral gene vector. The transfection efficiency of HPEI nanogels was comparable with that of PEI25K, while the cytotoxicity was lower than that of PEI2K(More)