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BACKGROUND In 2010 Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), again devastated honey bee colonies in the USA, indicating that the problem is neither diminishing nor has it been resolved. Many CCD investigations, using sensitive genome-based methods, have found small RNA bee viruses and the microsporidia, Nosema apis and N. ceranae in healthy and collapsing colonies(More)
Apoptosis and inhibition of host gene expression are often associated with virus infections. Many viral polypeptides modulate apoptosis by direct interaction with highly conserved apoptotic pathways. Some viruses induce apoptosis during late stages of the infection cycle, while others inhibit apoptosis to facilitate replication or maintain persistent(More)
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