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The complete genomic sequence of a previously characterized temperate phage of Clostridium difficile, C2, is reported. The genome is 56 538 bp and organized into 84 putative ORFs in six functional modules. The head and tail structural proteins showed similarities to that of C. difficile phage CD119 and Streptococcus pneumoniae phage EJ-1, respectively.(More)
BACKGROUND Genes essential for bacterial growth are of particular scientific interest. Many putative essential genes have been identified or predicted in several species, however, little is known about gene expression requirement stringency, which may be an important aspect of bacterial physiology and likely a determining factor in drug target development.(More)
Infection with Clostridium difficile and subsequent production of toxins A and B may result in C. difficile-associated diarrhoea and pseudomembranous colitis in hospital patients. The effect of four temperate phages, obtained by induction of clinical C. difficile isolates, on toxin production by C. difficile was determined. None of these phages converted a(More)
BACKGROUND Neonatal dried blood spots (Guthrie cards) have been used to demonstrate a prenatal origin of clonal leukemia-specific genetic aberrations in several subgroups of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). One hypothesis suggests that an infectious agent could initiate genetic transformation already in utero. In search for a possible viral(More)
BACKGROUND Antibiotic resistance genes are widely used for selection of recombinant bacteria, but their use risks contributing to the spread of antibiotic resistance. In particular, the practice is inappropriate for some intrinsically resistant bacteria and in vaccine production, and costly for industrial scale production. Non-antibiotic systems are(More)
Chronic fatigue syndrome is an idiopathic syndrome widely suspected of having an infectious or immune etiology. We applied an unbiased metagenomic approach to try to identify known or novel infectious agents in the serum of 45 cases with chronic fatigue syndrome or idiopathic chronic fatigue. Controls were the unaffected monozygotic co-twins of cases, and(More)
BACKGROUND In many parts of the world, livestock production is undergoing a process of rapid intensification. The health implications of this development are uncertain. Intensification creates cheaper products, allowing more people to access animal-based foods. However, some practices associated with intensification may contribute to zoonotic disease(More)
Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) and Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) have been well studied for adult cases, but not as well in the pediatric population. Whether the disease process or response to treatments differs between pediatric and adult patients is an important clinical concern when following global guidelines based largely on adult(More)
Antisense agents that target growth-essential genes display surprisingly potent bactericidal properties. In particular, peptide nucleic acid (PNA) and phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers linked to cationic carrier peptides are effective in time kill assays and as inhibitors of bacterial peritonitis in mice. It is unclear how these relatively large(More)