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Members of the HCN channel family generate hyperpolarization-activated cation currents (Ih) that are directly regulated by cAMP and contribute to pacemaker activity in heart and brain. The four HCN isoforms show distinct but overlapping patterns of expression in different tissues. Here, we report that HCN1 and HCN2, isoforms coexpressed in neocortex and(More)
The hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-modulated cation (HCN) channels are regulated by both membrane voltage and the binding of cyclic nucleotides to a cytoplasmic, C-terminal cyclic nucleotide-binding domain (CNBD). Here we have addressed the mechanism of this dual regulation for HCN2 channels, which activate with slow kinetics that are(More)
NMDA and AMPA receptors (NMDARs and AMPARs) are colocalized at most excitatory synapses in the CNS. Consequently, both receptor types are activated by a single quantum of transmitter and contribute to miniature and evoked EPSCs. However, in amphibian retina, miniature EPSCs in ganglion cell layer neurons are mediated solely by AMPARs, although both NMDARs(More)
Progressive myoclonus epilepsy (PME) is a syndrome characterized by myoclonic seizures (lightning-like jerks), generalized convulsive seizures, and varying degrees of neurological decline, especially ataxia and dementia. Previously, we characterized three pedigrees of individuals with PME and ataxia, where either clinical features or linkage mapping(More)
Distinct subclasses of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) mediate vision and nonimage-forming functions such as circadian photoentrainment. This distinction stems from studies that ablated melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive RGCs (ipRGCs) and showed deficits in nonimage-forming behaviors, but not image vision. However, we show that the ON alpha(More)
BACKGROUND The epicardial border zone (EBZ) of surviving myocytes in the healing, 4- to 5-day-old canine infarct is an arrhythmogenic substrate characterized by both structural and functional remodeling of Cx43. Unknown is whether the remodeling of gap junction conductance is heterogeneous in the EBZ like that of sarcolemmal ion channel remodeling and how(More)
PURPOSE Provide a reproducible method for culturing confluent monolayers of hfRPE cells that exhibit morphology, physiology, polarity, and protein expression patterns similar to native tissue. METHODS Human fetal eyes were dissected on arrival, and RPE cell sheets were mechanically separated from the choroid and cultured in a specifically designed medium(More)
Signal transduction in neurons is a dynamic process, generally thought to be driven by transient changes in the concentration of second messengers. Here we describe a novel regulatory mechanism in which the dynamics of signaling through cyclic AMP are mediated by activity-dependent changes in the affinity of the hyperpolarization-activated, cation(More)
Members of the hyperpolarization-activated cation (HCN) channel family generate HCN currents (I(h)) that are directly regulated by cAMP and contribute to pacemaking activity in heart and brain. The four different HCN isoforms show distinct biophysical properties. In cell-free patches from Xenopus oocytes, the steady-state activation curve of HCN2 channels(More)
Homeostatic mechanisms are required to control formation and maintenance of synaptic connections to maintain the general level of neural impulse activity within normal limits. How genes controlling these processes are co-coordinately regulated during homeostatic synaptic plasticity is unknown. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) exert regulatory control over mRNA stability(More)