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Members of the HCN channel family generate hyperpolarization-activated cation currents (Ih) that are directly regulated by cAMP and contribute to pacemaker activity in heart and brain. The four HCN isoforms show distinct but overlapping patterns of expression in different tissues. Here, we report that HCN1 and HCN2, isoforms coexpressed in neocortex and(More)
The hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-modulated cation (HCN) channels are regulated by both membrane voltage and the binding of cyclic nucleotides to a cytoplasmic, C-terminal cyclic nucleotide-binding domain (CNBD). Here we have addressed the mechanism of this dual regulation for HCN2 channels, which activate with slow kinetics that are(More)
Progressive myoclonus epilepsy (PME) is a syndrome characterized by myoclonic seizures (lightning-like jerks), generalized convulsive seizures, and varying degrees of neurological decline, especially ataxia and dementia. Previously, we characterized three pedigrees of individuals with PME and ataxia, where either clinical features or linkage mapping(More)
NMDA and AMPA receptors (NMDARs and AMPARs) are colocalized at most excitatory synapses in the CNS. Consequently, both receptor types are activated by a single quantum of transmitter and contribute to miniature and evoked EPSCs. However, in amphibian retina, miniature EPSCs in ganglion cell layer neurons are mediated solely by AMPARs, although both NMDARs(More)
This paper studies the tradeoff between energy consumption and application performance in wireless sensor networks by investigating the interaction between network lifetime maximization and rate allocation problems. To guarantee the individual performance of sensor nodes, we adopt the network utility maximization (NUM) framework to ensure certain fairness(More)
Ypt/Rab GTPases control various aspects of vesicle formation and targeting via their diverse effectors. We report a new role for these GTPases in protein recycling through a novel effector. The F-box protein Rcy1, which mediates plasma membrane recycling, is identified here as a downstream effector of the Ypt31/32 GTPase pair because it binds active(More)
MicroRNA (miRNA) expression in fetal human retinal pigment epithelium (hfRPE), retina, and choroid were pairwise compared to determine those miRNAs that are enriched by 10-fold or more in each tissue compared with both of its neighbors. miRs-184, 187, 200a/200b, 204/211, and 221/222 are enriched in hfRPE by 10- to 754-fold compared with neuroretina or(More)
Distinct subclasses of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) mediate vision and nonimage-forming functions such as circadian photoentrainment. This distinction stems from studies that ablated melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive RGCs (ipRGCs) and showed deficits in nonimage-forming behaviors, but not image vision. However, we show that the ON alpha(More)
PURPOSE Provide a reproducible method for culturing confluent monolayers of hfRPE cells that exhibit morphology, physiology, polarity, and protein expression patterns similar to native tissue. METHODS Human fetal eyes were dissected on arrival, and RPE cell sheets were mechanically separated from the choroid and cultured in a specifically designed medium(More)
Activation of NFkappaB is a fundamental cellular event central to all inflammatory diseases. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) ameliorates both acute and chronic inflammation in a multitude of organ systems through modulating NFkappaB activity; nevertheless, the exact molecular mechanism remains uncertain. Here we report that HGF through inactivation of(More)