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Extensive empirical studies presented in this article confirm that the quality of radio communication between low-power sensor devices varies significantly with time and environment. This phenomenon indicates that the previous topology control solutions, which use static transmission power, transmission range, and link quality, might not be effective in the(More)
This paper demonstrates how to use multiple channels to improve communication performance in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). We first investigate multi-channel realities in WSNs through intensive empirical experiments with Micaz motes. Our study shows that current multi-channel protocols are not suitable for WSNs, because of the small number of available(More)
As wireless sensor networks mature, they are increasingly being used in real-time applications. Many of these applications require reliable transmission within latency bounds. Achieving this goal is very difficult because of link burstiness and interference. Based on significant empirical evidence of 21 days and over 3,600,000 packets transmission per link,(More)
OBJECTIVE To characterize the central corneal thickness (CCT) of Asian (Chinese, Japanese, and Filipino), Caucasian, Hispanic, and African American patients in a multiethnic glaucoma practice. DESIGN Retrospective study (chart review). PARTICIPANTS Glaucomatous (n = 600) and nonglaucomatous (n = 201) eyes of 801 patients examined in a San Francisco(More)
The root system of permanent grasslands is of outstanding importance for resource acquisition. Particularly under semi-arid conditions, the acquisition of water and nutrients is highly variable during the vegetation growth period and between years. Additionally, grazing is repeatedly disturbing the functional equilibrium between the root system and the(More)
Productivity of semiarid grasslands is affected by soil water and nutrient availability, with water controlling net primary production under dry conditions and soil nutrients constraining biomass production under wet conditions. In order to investigate limitations on plants by the response of root–shoot biomass allocation to water and nitrogen (N)(More)
PURPOSE To investigate the prevalence of and risk factors for depression among participants with glaucoma and the predictive value of glaucoma for depression. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. METHODS This study included 6760 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) between 2005 and 2008, aged ≥40 years, who reported a(More)
While water availability determines grassland productivity in semiarid regions, nutrient availability is the main limiting factor under wet conditions. An experiment was conducted in 2008 at two sites in Inner Mongolia with histories of heavy grazing (HG) and moderate grazing (MG) to study the interactive effects of water and nitrogen on above- and(More)
It is known that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α, whose activation reduces hyperlipidemia, is highly expressed in intestinal epithelial cells. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) could improve postprandial hyperlipidemia, however, its relationship with intestinal PPARα activation is not revealed. In this study, we investigated whether DHA can(More)