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Ischaemia of the heart, brain and limbs is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Hypoxia stimulates the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and other angiogenic factors, leading to neovascularization and protection against ischaemic injury. Here we show that the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1alpha(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma), a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily originally shown to play a critical role in adipocyte differentiation and glucose homeostasis, has recently been implicated as a regulator of cellular proliferation and inflammatory responses. Colonic epithelial cells, which express high(More)
The induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha), a key regulator of mitochondriogenesis, is well-established under multiple physical exercise regimens, including, endurance, resistance, and sprint training. We wanted to determine if increased expression of PGC-1alpha in muscle is sufficient to improve(More)
Binding to receptors in the cell nucleus is crucial for the action of lipophilic hormones and ligands. PPAR-gamma (for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor) is a nuclear hormone receptor that mediates adipocyte differentiation and modulates insulin sensitivity, cell proliferation and inflammatory processes. PPAR-gamma ligands have been implicated in(More)
Obesity-associated diabetes is epidemic in industrialized societies. The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is highly expressed in adipose tissue and the presumed molecular target for antidiabetic thiazolidinedione drugs that reverse insulin resistance but also promote weight gain. Phosphorylation reduces the(More)
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma) has been the focus of intense research during the past decade because ligands for this receptor have emerged as potent insulin sensitizers used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Recent advances include the discovery of novel genes that are regulated by PPAR-gamma, which helps explain how(More)
The major transcriptional factors involved in the adipogenic process include proteins belonging to the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein family, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, and adipocyte determination and differentiation dependent factor 1, also known as sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1. This process has been characterized with(More)
Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are widely used for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) is the molecular target of TZDs and is believed to mediate the apoptotic effects of this class of drugs in a variety of cell types, including B and T lymphocytes. The finding that TZDs induce lymphocyte death has(More)
Estrogen-related receptor gamma (ERRgamma) regulates the perinatal switch to oxidative metabolism in the myocardium. We wanted to understand the significance of induction of ERRgamma expression in skeletal muscle by exercise. Muscle-specific VP16ERRgamma transgenic mice demonstrated an increase in exercise capacity, mitochondrial enzyme activity, and(More)
The association between obesity and diabetes supports an endocrine role for the adipocyte in maintaining glucose homeostasis. Here we report that mice lacking the adipocyte hormone resistin exhibit low blood glucose levels after fasting, due to reduced hepatic glucose production. This is partly mediated by activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated(More)