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We identified a homologue of the alternative oxidase gene in a screen to identify genes that are preferentially transcribed in response to a shift to 37 degrees C in the human-pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans. Alternative oxidases are nucleus-encoded mitochondrial proteins that have two putative roles: they can function in parallel with the classic(More)
Handwashing with soap prevents diarrhea and respiratory disease, but it is rarely practiced in high-need settings. Among 100 randomly selected villages in rural Bangladesh, field workers enrolled 10 households per village and observed and recorded household activities for 5 hours. Field workers observed 761 handwashing opportunities among household members(More)
BACKGROUND We analyzed data from the baseline assessment of a large intervention project to describe typical handwashing practices in rural Bangladesh, and compare measures of hand cleanliness with household characteristics. METHODS We randomly selected 100 villages from 36 districts in rural Bangladesh. Field workers identified 17 eligible households per(More)
We piloted a low-cost approach to measure the disease burden of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Hib and Salmonella Typhi by leveraging the existing infrastructure of high performing microbiology laboratories at two large paediatric hospitals in Dhaka Bangladesh, and assessing the hospital utilization of the catchment population of these hospitals for different(More)
CONTEXT Treatment of complications of unsafe abortion can be a significant financial drain on health system resources, particularly in developing countries. In Bangladesh, menstrual regulation is provided by the government as a backup to contraception. The comparison of economic costs of providing menstrual regulation care with those of providing treatment(More)
BACKGROUND The association between a history of cancer and mortality has not been studied in a propensity-matched population of community-dwelling older adults. METHODS Of the 5795 participants in the Cardiovascular Health Study, 827 (14%) had self-reported physician-diagnosed cancer at baseline. Propensity scores for cancer were used to assemble a cohort(More)
Brain stem noradrenergic cell groups mediating autonomic responses to stress project to airway-related vagal preganglionic neurons (AVPNs). In ferrets, their activation produces withdrawal of cholinergic outflow to the airways via release of norepinephrine and activation of alpha(2A)-adrenergic receptors (alpha(2A)-AR) expressed by AVPNs. In these studies,(More)
Treating complications of unsafe abortion can be financially draining for health systems. This analysis assessed incremental health system costs of service delivery for abortion-related complications in the Bangladesh public health system and confirmed that providing postabortion care with vacuum aspiration is less expensive than using dilation and(More)
INTRODUCTION Young children in the developing world continue to experience a median of between two and four episodes of diarrhoea each year. To better understand adherence to the WHO/UNICEF-recommended diarrhoea management guidelines, which now include zinc, this study aimed to determine how much caregivers were willing to pay for zinc treatment and to(More)