Learn More
Ethanol exposure during pregnancy is an established cause of birth defects, including neurodevelopmental defects. Most adult neurons are produced during the second trimester-equivalent period. The fetal neural stem cells (NSCs) that generate these neurons are an important but poorly understood target for teratogenesis. A cohort of miRNAs, including miR-153,(More)
Because both brain and its vasculature are potent targets of estrogen, age-related decline in estrogen levels or alterations in estrogen receptors may disrupt the integrity of the blood-brain barrier, leading to increased influx of toxic products. The present study tested the hypothesis that the blood-brain barrier is more permeable in reproductive(More)
Estrogen has been shown to suppress neural inflammation in vivo in response to intracerebral LPS injections or by intraparenchymal injections of NMDA. Using the latter approach, we have shown that estrogen suppresses inflammatory cytokine expression in lesioned ovariectomized young adult females but not reproductive senescent animals. However, in cultured(More)
The developing fetal brain is vulnerable to a variety of environmental agents including maternal ethanol consumption. Preclinical studies on the development and amelioration of fetal teratology would be significantly facilitated by the application of high resolution imaging technologies like optical coherence tomography (OCT) and high-frequency ultrasound(More)
Estrogen and its receptors influence growth and differentiation by stimulating the production and secretion of growth factors. Our previous studies indicate an increased expression of estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha and decreased growth factor synthesis in the olfactory bulb of reproductive senescent female rats as compared with young animals. The present(More)
Estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) is widely prescribed to postmenopausal women for relief from the adverse vasomotor effects of menopause, to reduce bone loss, to improve cardiovascular health, and to protect against metabolic disorders. However, there is now greater awareness of the increased risk to benefit ratio from the recently concluded Women's(More)
Ischemia-induced cerebral infarction is more severe in older animals as compared to younger animals, and is associated with reduced availability of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1. This study determined the effect of post-stroke IGF-1 treatment, and used microRNA profiling to identify mechanisms underlying IGF-1's neuroprotective actions. Post-stroke ICV(More)
We previously demonstrated that there is a significantly greater transfer of intravenously-injected Evan's blue dye into the forebrain of acyclic (reproductive senescent) females compared to young adult females, indicating that blood brain barrier permeability is compromised in the reproductive senescent forebrain. The present study examined brain IgG(More)
BACKGROUND Estrogen suppresses microglial activation and extravasation of circulating monocytes in young animals, supporting an anti-inflammatory role for this hormone. However, the mechanisms underlying estrogen's anti-inflammatory effects, especially in vivo, are not well understood. The present study tests the hypothesis that anti-inflammatory effects of(More)
BACKGROUND Ethanol (EtOH) consumption during pregnancy can lead to fetal growth retardation, mental retardation, and neurodevelopmental delay. The fetal brain initiates neurogenesis and vasculogenesis during the second trimester, and depends on maternal-fetal circulation for nutrition and growth signals. We used high-resolution in vivo ultrasound imaging to(More)