Shakiru O. Alapafuja

Learn More
Endocannabinoids are released ‘on-demand’ on the basis of physiological need, and can be pharmacologically augmented by inhibiting their catabolic degradation. The endocannabinoid anandamide is degraded by the catabolic enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). Anandamide is implicated in the mediation of fear behaviors, including fear extinction,(More)
Endocannabinoids, including anandamide (AEA), have been implicated in neuroprotective on-demand responses. Related to such a response to injury, an excitotoxic kainic acid (KA) injection (i.p.) was found to increase AEA levels in the brain. To modulate the endocannabinoid response during events of excitotoxicity in vitro and in vivo, we utilized a new(More)
Sulfonyl fluorides are known to inhibit esterases. Early work from our laboratory has identified hexadecyl sulfonylfluoride (AM374) as a potent in vitro and in vivo inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). We now report on later generation sulfonyl fluoride analogs that exhibit potent and selective inhibition of FAAH. Using recombinant rat and human(More)
In earlier work we have provided evidence for the presence of a subsite within the CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptor binding domains of classical cannabinoids. This putative subsite corresponds to substituents on the C1'-position of the C3-alkyl side chain, a key pharmacophoric feature in this class of compounds. We have now refined this work through the(More)
The primary psychoactive ingredient of marijuana, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), has medicinal value but also produces unwanted deleterious effects on cognitive function, promoting the search for improved cannabinergic therapeutics. The present studies used a battery of touchscreen procedures in squirrel monkeys to compare the effects of different(More)
The enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) catalyzes the in vivo degradation of the endocannabinoid anandamide, thus controlling its action at receptors. A novel FAAH inhibitor, AM3506, normalizes the elevated blood pressure and cardiac contractility of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) without affecting these parameters in normotensive rats. These(More)
We describe the use of a microwave reaction for the conversion of various bromides to sodium sulfonates that have been further elaborated to sulfonyl chlorides. This new approach leads to much improved yields and shorter reaction times. Representative sulfonyl chlorides serve as precursors for the respective sulfonyl fluorides that are potent inhibitors of(More)
Drugs that block fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH, which elevates anandamide [AEA]) and drugs which block monoacylglycerol (MAGL, which elevates 2-arachidonyl glycerol [2-AG]) have promise in treating both acute and anticipatory nausea in human patients. This study aims to evaluate the relative effectiveness of dual MAGL/FAAH inhibition with either alone to(More)
In pursuit of a more detailed understanding of the structural requirements for the key side chain cannabinoid pharmacophore, we have extended our SAR to cover a variety of conformationally modified side chains within the 9-keto and 9-hydroxyl tricyclic structures. Of the compounds described here, those with a seven-atom long side chain substituted with a(More)
An improved understanding of the endocannabinoid system has provided new avenues of drug discovery and development toward the management of pain and other behavioral maladies. Exogenous cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor agonists such as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol are increasingly used for their medicinal actions; however, their utility is constrained by(More)