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BACKGROUND Novel therapeutic approaches are needed to attack persistent proviral human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Hexamethylbisacetamide (HMBA), a hybrid bipolar compound, induces expression of the HIV-1 promoter in the long terminal repeat (LTR) region in a Tat-independent manner but mimics the effect of Tat, overcoming barriers to LTR(More)
A small animal model that reproduces human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) pathogenesis may allow modeling of new therapeutic strategies in ways not approachable in mononuclear cell culture. We find that, as in humans, combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in humanized (hu-) Rag2(-/-)gamma(c)(-/-) mice allows suppression of viremia below the limits(More)
Here we demonstrate that a combination of tenofovir, emtricitabine, and raltegravir effectively suppresses peripheral and systemic HIV replication in humanized BLT mice. We also demonstrate that antiretroviral therapy (ART)-treated humanized BLT mice harbor latently infected resting human CD4+ T cells that can be induced ex vivo to produce HIV. We observed(More)
The muscle-specific intermediate filament protein, desmin, is one of the earliest myogenic markers whose functional role during myogenic commitment and differentiation is unknown. Sequence comparison of the presently isolated and fully characterized mouse desmin cDNA clones revealed a single domain of polypeptide similarity between desmin and the basic and(More)
The major targets of HIV infection in humans are CD4+ T cells. CD4+ T cell depletion is a hallmark of AIDS. Previously, the SCID-hu thy/liv model was used to study the effect of HIV on thymopoeisis in vivo. However, these mice did not develop high levels of peripheral T cell reconstitution and required invasive surgery for infection and analysis. Here, we(More)
Long-term asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals (LTA) usually have low viral load and low immune activation. To discern whether viral load or immune activation is dominant in determining progression to AIDS, we studied three exceptional LTA with high viral loads. HIV type 1 isolates from these LTA were as pathogenic as viruses(More)
Napins belong to the family of 2S albumin seed storage proteins and are shown to possess antifungal activity. Napins, in general, consist of two subunits (derived from single precursor) linked by disulphide bridges. Usually, reducing environment of the E. coli cytosol is not conducive for proper folding of heterodimeric proteins containing disulphide(More)
HIV-1 infection persists even after years of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Although ART can halt viral replication and thereby reduce viremia to clinically undetectable levels, proviral latency established within the host genome remains largely unaffected by ART and can replenish systemic infection following interruption of therapy. Pharmacologic(More)
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) can reduce HIV levels in plasma to undetectable levels, but rather little is known about the effects of ART outside of the peripheral blood regarding persistent virus production in tissue reservoirs. Understanding the dynamics of ART-induced reductions in viral RNA (vRNA) levels throughout the body is important for the(More)
Mutations in BRCA1 account for a significant proportion of familial breast and ovarian cancers. BRCA1 has been implicated in DNA damage responses including double-strand break (DSB) repair. However, its exact role in DSB repair and its functional relationship with other known repair proteins remain to be elucidated. In this study, we carried out a(More)