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The Mediator (Med) complex relays regulatory information from DNA-bound transcription factors to the RNA polymerase II in eukaryotes. This macromolecular unit is composed of three core subcomplexes in addition to a separable kinase module. In this study, conservation of Meds has been investigated in 16 plant species representing seven diverse groups across(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive cell loss confined mostly to dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra. Several factors, including oxidative stress, and decreased activity of complex I mitochondrial respiratory chain, are involved in the degenerative process. Yet, the underlying mechanisms leading to(More)
The role played by protein kinase C (PKC) in TH gene regulation was investigated at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels using PC12 cells. The cells were treated with the phorbol ester TPA, which not only activates PKC but also causes down-regulation. PKC levels were monitored by [3H]PDBU binding assay and by using an anti-PKC antibody that(More)
Caspase-3 is an effector of apoptosis in experimental models of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, its potential role in the human pathology remains to be demonstrated. Using caspase-3 immunohistochemistry on the postmortem human brain, we observed a positive correlation between the degree of neuronal loss in dopaminergic (DA) cell groups affected in the(More)
Morphological and biochemical alterations have been described in neurons of the aged human brain. However, the cell death process associated with neuronal senescence remains to be elucidated. Apoptosis and autophagic degeneration, two modes of programmed cell death described in embryogenesis and tissue renewal in adult, have been observed in nigral(More)
To understand the role of calbindin-D 28K in neuronal degeneration, we examined its expression in differentiated PC12 cells in response to calcium intoxication, using the ionophore A23187 treatment, that results in cell degeneration and death. We first established that calbindin-D 28K is expressed in PC12 cells. The amounts of calbindin-D 28K mRNA and(More)
The expression of the protooncogene bcl-2, an inhibitor of apoptosis in various cells, was examined in the adult human brain. Several experimental criteria were used to verify its presence; mRNA was analyzed by northern blot with parallel experiments in mouse tissues, by RNase protection, and by in situ hybridization histochemistry. Bcl-2 protein was(More)
The subnormal choline acetyltransferase (ChoAcTase) activity in the cerebral cortex of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) is thought to originate from the loss of cholinergic neurons in the nucleus basalis of Meynert (nbM). To examine possible changes in the functional activity of the remaining cholinergic neurons in the nbM of patients with AD, the level(More)
Iron, a transition metal possibly involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease, was tested for its toxic effects toward cultures of dissociated rat mesencephalic cells. When cultures were switched for 24 h to serum-free conditions, the effective concentrations of ferrous iron (Fe2+) producing a loss of 50% of dopaminergic neurons, as quantified by(More)