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OBJECTIVE We describe the effectiveness of a prime-boost vaccination regimen using the open-reading frame (ORFF) gene from the LD1 locus of Leishmania donovani. METHODS A group of BALB/c mice was immunized with the plasmid carrying the gene for ORFF (F/pcDNA 3.1) and given a booster dose of either the same DNA vaccine or a vaccine with a recombinant ORFF(More)
The gene ORFF is part of the multigenic LD1 locus on chromosome 35 that is frequently amplified in Leishmania. The function of ORFF is unknown. The gene encoding ORFF was cloned into a eukaryotic expression vector downstream to the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. BALB/c mice were injected intramuscularly with ORFF DNA and challenged with Leishmania donovani(More)
Parenteral use of drugs; such as opiates exert immunomodulatory effects and serve as a cofactor in the progression of HIV-1 infection, thereby potentiating HIV related neurotoxicity ultimately leading to progression of NeuroAIDS. Morphine exposure is known to induce apoptosis, down regulate cAMP response element-binding (CREB) expression and decrease in(More)
Paromomycin is currently in phase IV clinical trials against leishmaniasis. In the present work we elucidate the effect and mechanism of uptake of paromomycin in Leishmania donovani. The in vitro sensitivities of both promastigotes and amastigotes were determined to this aminoglycoside. Association of paromomycin with L. donovani involved a rapid initial(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is commonly associated with immune dysfunctions and the suppression of antigen-presenting cells. This results in immune alterations, which could lead to impaired neuronal functions, such as neuroAIDS. The neurotoxic factor kynurenine (KYN), the rate-limiting enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), serotonin(More)
Unmethylated CpG dinucleotides in bacterial DNA or synthetic oligonucleotides (ODN) have proved as promising adjuvants for promotion of T helper 1 (Th1) type immune response. The potent Th1 like immune activation by CpG-ODNs suggests a possible utility for vaccination against leishmaniasis. We therefore investigated the effect of ODN containing(More)
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is a new emerging threat around the globe which might be responsible for microcephaly and Guillain–Barre syndrome in the infants. Recently, ZIKV outbreak has caused a public health crisis in Brazil after being linked to a sharp increase in birth defects. ZIKV is ssRNA virus belongs to the family Flaviviridae. It is mainly(More)
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play a pivotal role in epigenetic regulation of transcription and homeostasis of protein acetylation in histones and other proteins involved in chromatin remodeling. Histone hypoacetylation and transcriptional dysfunction have been shown to be associated with a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. More recently, neuron(More)
In recent years, increasing interest has emerged to assess the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) clade C viral pathogenesis due to its anticipated spread in the United States and other western countries. Previous studies suggest that clade C is less neuropathogenic than clade B; however, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Additionally,(More)