Shailendra K Saxena

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OBJECTIVE We describe the effectiveness of a prime-boost vaccination regimen using the open-reading frame (ORFF) gene from the LD1 locus of Leishmania donovani. METHODS A group of BALB/c mice was immunized with the plasmid carrying the gene for ORFF (F/pcDNA 3.1) and given a booster dose of either the same DNA vaccine or a vaccine with a recombinant ORFF(More)
Parenteral use of drugs; such as opiates exert immunomodulatory effects and serve as a cofactor in the progression of HIV-1 infection, thereby potentiating HIV related neurotoxicity ultimately leading to progression of NeuroAIDS. Morphine exposure is known to induce apoptosis, down regulate cAMP response element-binding (CREB) expression and decrease in(More)
Paromomycin is currently in phase IV clinical trials against leishmaniasis. In the present work we elucidate the effect and mechanism of uptake of paromomycin in Leishmania donovani. The in vitro sensitivities of both promastigotes and amastigotes were determined to this aminoglycoside. Association of paromomycin with L. donovani involved a rapid initial(More)
Visceral leishmaniasis, caused by the intracellular parasite Leishmania donovani is a significant public health problem in many regions of the world. Anti-leishmanial immune defences are primarily dependent on the ability of the host to mount an interleukin-12 (IL-12) driven Th1 type of responses. Thus, IL-12 plays a pivotal role in diversification of the(More)
Unmethylated CpG dinucleotides in bacterial DNA or synthetic oligonucleotides (ODN) have proved as promising adjuvants for promotion of T helper 1 (Th1) type immune response. The potent Th1 like immune activation by CpG-ODNs suggests a possible utility for vaccination against leishmaniasis. We therefore investigated the effect of ODN containing(More)
The gene ORFF is part of the multigenic LD1 locus on chromosome 35 that is frequently amplified in Leishmania. The function of ORFF is unknown. The gene encoding ORFF was cloned into a eukaryotic expression vector downstream to the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. BALB/c mice were injected intramuscularly with ORFF DNA and challenged with Leishmania donovani(More)
BACKGROUND In the year 2005, an epidemic of Japanese encephalitis (JE) occurred in the northern states of India. The present study was planned to reconfirm the circulation of JE in the area and to assess the trend of the disease to slow down the burden of JE. METHODOLOGY Surveillance was conducted to identify patients with acute encephalitis. Blood and(More)
BACKGROUND Bosentan is an endothelin-receptor antagonist that reportedly induces both cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and CYP2C9 enzymes, which are also involved in warfarin metabolism. We present a case report describing a probable drug interaction between warfarin and bosentan in a patient with pulmonary hypertension. CASE SUMMARY A 52-year-old black female(More)
In recent years, increasing interest has emerged to assess the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) clade C viral pathogenesis due to its anticipated spread in the United States and other western countries. Previous studies suggest that clade C is less neuropathogenic than clade B; however, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Additionally,(More)
Although highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has significantly reduced the morbidity and mortality in HIV patients, virus continues to reside in the central nervous system (CNS) reservoir. Hence, a complete eradication of virus remains a challenge. HIV productively infects microglia/macrophages, but astrocytes are generally restricted to HIV(More)