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Environmental pollutants which alter endocrine function are now known to decrease vertebrate reproductive success. There is considerable evidence for endocrine disruption from aquatic ecosystems, but knowledge is lacking with regard to the interface between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Here, we show for the first time that birds foraging on(More)
Plant secondary metabolites (PSMs), such as alkaloids, are often found in many parts of a plant, including flowers, providing protection to the plant from various types of herbivores or microbes. PSMs are also present in the floral nectar of many species, but typically at lower concentrations than in other parts of the plant. Nectar robbers often damage(More)
In monogamous species, conspecific aggression is a primary tactic to deter intruders. Alternative reproductive strategies, such as extra-pair copulations or intra-specific brood parasitism that peak at the pre-egg laying period and are practised by intruders, pose a significant threat to the monogamous pair. Here, we addressed the question whether male and(More)
The trade-off between parents feeding themselves and their young is an important life history problem that can be considered in terms of optimal behavioral strategies. Recent studies on birds have tested how parents allocate the food between themselves and their young. Until now the effect of food consumption by parent birds on their food delivery to their(More)
Although 90 % of all bird species are monogamous, many species practice alternative reproductive strategies as extra-pair copulations, intra-specific brood parasitism, and quasi-parasitism. In territorial monogamous species, both partners hold and defend the territory from intruders. Often, the intruders are males and usually the local male banishes the(More)
The present study examined both the theoretical and practical applications of the Lateral Eye Movements (LEM) in an educational setting. Normal fifth and sixth grade students were tested on their ability to recall and recognize word pairs before and after exposure either to a verbal rehearsal or to an imagery strategy. There was an interaction between the(More)
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