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The establishment of the main body axis and the determination of left-right asymmetry are fundamental aspects of vertebrate embryonic development. A link between these processes has been revealed by the frequent finding of midline defects in humans with left-right anomalies. This association is also seen in a number of mutations in mouse and zebrafish, and(More)
Down syndrome confers a 20-fold increased risk of B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), and polysomy 21 is the most frequent somatic aneuploidy among all B-ALLs. Yet the mechanistic links between chromosome 21 triplication and B-ALL remain undefined. Here we show that germline triplication of only 31 genes orthologous to human chromosome 21q22(More)
BACKGROUND Children with Down's syndrome have a greatly increased risk of acute megakaryoblastic and acute lymphoblastic leukaemias. Acute megakaryoblastic leukaemia in Down's syndrome is characterised by a somatic mutation in GATA1. Constitutive activation of the JAK/STAT (Janus kinase and signal transducer and activator of transcription) pathway occurs in(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the expression of multiple proteins in a dose-dependent manner. We hypothesized that increased expression of miRNAs encoded on chromosome 21 (chr 21) contribute to the leukemogenic function of trisomy 21. The levels of chr 21 miRNAs were quantified by qRT-PCR in four types of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)(More)
The Ets-related gene (ERG) is an Ets-transcription factor required for normal blood stem cell development. ERG expression is down-regulated during early T-lymphopoiesis but maintained in T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), where it is recognized as an independent risk factor for adverse outcome. However, it is unclear whether ERG is directly involved in(More)
Aneuploidy is one of the hallmarks of cancer. Acquired additions of chromosome 21 are a common finding in leukemias, suggesting a contributory role to leukemogenesis. About 10% of patients with a germ line trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) are born with transient megakaryoblastic leukemia. We and others have shown acquired mutations in the X chromosome gene GATA1(More)
Children with Down syndrome (DS) show a spectrum of clinical anomalies, including cognitive impairment, cardiac malformations, and craniofacial dysmorphy. Moreover, hematologists have also noted that these children commonly show macrocytosis, abnormal platelet counts, and an increased incidence of transient myeloproliferative disease (TMD), acute(More)
Chromosomal rearrangements of the human MLL (mixed lineage leukemia) gene are associated with high-risk infant, pediatric, adult and therapy-induced acute leukemias. We used long-distance inverse-polymerase chain reaction to characterize the chromosomal rearrangement of individual acute leukemia patients. We present data of the molecular characterization of(More)
Interleukin-7 receptor α (IL7R) is required for normal lymphoid development. Loss-of-function mutations in this gene cause autosomal recessive severe combined immune deficiency. Here, we describe somatic gain-of-function mutations in IL7R in pediatric B and T acute lymphoblastic leukemias. The mutations cause either a serine-to-cysteine substitution at(More)
BACKGROUND Chromosomal aneuploidy, that is to say the gain or loss of chromosomes, is the most common abnormality in cancer. While certain aberrations, most commonly translocations, are known to be strongly associated with specific cancers and contribute to their formation, most aberrations appear to be non-specific and arbitrary, and do not have a clear(More)