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Chromosomal rearrangements of the human MLL gene are associated with high-risk pediatric, adult and therapy-associated acute leukemias. These patients need to be identified, treated appropriately and minimal residual disease was monitored by quantitative PCR techniques. Genomic DNA was isolated from individual acute leukemia patients to identify and(More)
Centrioles are key structural elements of centrosomes and primary cilia. In mammals, only a few proteins including PLK4, CPAP (CENPJ), SAS6, CEP192, CEP152 and CEP135 have thus far been identified to be required for centriole duplication. STIL (SCL/TAL1 interrupting locus, also known as SIL) is a centrosomal protein that is essential for mouse and zebrafish(More)
PURPOSE Recent advances in treatment of lung cancer require greater accuracy in the subclassification of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Targeted therapies which inhibit tumor angiogenesis pose higher risk for adverse response in cases of squamous cell carcinoma. Interobserver variability and the lack of specific, standardized assays limit the current(More)
The establishment of the main body axis and the determination of left-right asymmetry are fundamental aspects of vertebrate embryonic development. A link between these processes has been revealed by the frequent finding of midline defects in humans with left-right anomalies. This association is also seen in a number of mutations in mouse and zebrafish, and(More)
Transient abnormal myelopoiesis (TAM) is a myeloid proliferation resembling acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL), mostly affecting perinatal infants with Down syndrome. Although self-limiting in a majority of cases, TAM may evolve as non-self-limiting AMKL after spontaneous remission (DS-AMKL). Pathogenesis of these Down syndrome-related myeloid disorders(More)
Interleukin-7 receptor α (IL7R) is required for normal lymphoid development. Loss-of-function mutations in this gene cause autosomal recessive severe combined immune deficiency. Here, we describe somatic gain-of-function mutations in IL7R in pediatric B and T acute lymphoblastic leukemias. The mutations cause either a serine-to-cysteine substitution at(More)
Patients with Down syndrome (DS) frequently develop 2 kinds of clonal megakaryocytosis: a common, congenital, spontaneously resolving, transient myeloproliferative disorder (TMD) and, less commonly, childhood acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL). Recently, acquired mutations in exon 2 of GATA1, an X-linked gene encoding a transcription factor that(More)
We report gene expression and other analyses to elucidate the molecular characteristics of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children with Down syndrome (DS). We find that by gene expression DS-ALL is a highly heterogeneous disease not definable as a unique entity. Nevertheless, 62% (33/53) of the DS-ALL samples analyzed were characterized by high(More)
Children with Down syndrome (DS) show a spectrum of clinical anomalies, including cognitive impairment, cardiac malformations, and craniofacial dysmorphy. Moreover, hematologists have also noted that these children commonly show macrocytosis, abnormal platelet counts, and an increased incidence of transient myeloproliferative disease (TMD), acute(More)
BACKGROUND Children with Down's syndrome have a greatly increased risk of acute megakaryoblastic and acute lymphoblastic leukaemias. Acute megakaryoblastic leukaemia in Down's syndrome is characterised by a somatic mutation in GATA1. Constitutive activation of the JAK/STAT (Janus kinase and signal transducer and activator of transcription) pathway occurs in(More)