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— Peer-to-peer technologies have proved to be effective for various bandwidth intensive, large scale applications such as file-transfer. For many years, there has been tremendous interest in academic environments for live video streaming as another application of P2P. Recently, a number of new commercial scale video streaming systems have cropped up. These(More)
Although cloud computing has rapidly emerged as a widely accepted computing paradigm, the research on cloud computing is still at an early stage. Cloud computing suffers from different challenging issues related to security, software frameworks, quality of service, standardization, and power consumption. Efficient energy management is one of the most(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the implementation of Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in renal stone management and evaluate the factors for efficacy and safety of PCNL. STUDY DESIGN Case series. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY Department of Urology at Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from January 2008 to December 2011. METHODOLOGY Patients aged above(More)
This paper presents a Distributed Efficient Multi hop Clustering (DEMC) protocol for mobile wireless sensor networks. An overwhelming majority of current research on sensor networks considers static networks only, while we consider mobile environment. DEMC is distributed, works well with mobile nodes, and has a recovery mechanism that is used to reduce the(More)
This paper presents comparison of different hierarchical (position and non-position based) protocols with respect to different mobility models. Previous work mainly focuses on static networks or at most a single mobility model. Using only one mobility model may not predict the behavior of routing protocol accurately. Simulation results show that mobility(More)
Group Shared Trees form a major component of most multicast routing protocols (e.g. PIM-SMv2, CBTv3). The shared trees are built by choosing one node as the center of the tree. The optimal location of a center under the constraints of minimal tree cost and delay for a particular group is an NP-complete problem. Current implementations of protocols decide on(More)
Context-awareness is a peculiar characteristic of an expanding set of applications that make use of a combination of restricted spatio-temporal locality and mobile communications, to deliver a variety of services. Opportunistic communications satisfy well the communication requirements of these applications, because they naturally incorporate context.(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine various presentations of superficial bladder cancer, its management, recurrence and progression rates. STUDY DESIGN Case series. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY Department of Urology, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from January 2002 to December 2009. METHODOLOGY Patients with pathologically proven superficial(More)
The available approaches for automatically generating class models from natural language (NL) software requirements specifications (SRS) exhibit less accuracy due to informal nature of NL such as English. In the automated class model generation, a higher accuracy can be achieved by overcoming the inherent syntactic ambiguities and semantic inconsistencies(More)