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Although cloud computing has rapidly emerged as a widely accepted computing paradigm, the research on cloud computing is still at an early stage. Cloud computing suffers from different challenging issues related to security, software frameworks, quality of service, standardization, and power consumption. Efficient energy management is one of the most(More)
Brucellosis is endemic in bovines in Pakistan. The Brucella species and biovars involved, however, are unknown. The objectives of the present study were to isolate and characterize brucellae from seropositive milk samples, aborted fetuses, and vaginal swabs of cattle and buffaloes which had recently aborted. The seropositive milk samples, aborted fetuses,(More)
The present study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and identify risk factors associated with brucellosis in humans at high risk in the Potohar plateau of northeastern Pakistan. A total of 262 serum samples were collected from persons of different occupational groups: veterinary personnel, milkers, abattoir workers, livestock farmers, and others(More)
INTRODUCTION The objectives of the present study were to determine the seroprevalence and identify the causative agent of brucellosis in small ruminants in Pakistan. METHODOLOGY A total of 278 serum and 212 milk samples were collected from sheep and goats that had close contact with seropositive bovine herds. Data related to age, sex, location, and breed(More)
This paper presents a Distributed Efficient Multi hop Clustering (DEMC) protocol for mobile wireless sensor networks. An overwhelming majority of current research on sensor networks considers static networks only, while we consider mobile environment. DEMC is distributed, works well with mobile nodes, and has a recovery mechanism that is used to reduce the(More)
The impact of olfactory perception on sweetness was explored in a model solution using odorants at subthreshold concentrations. First, the impact of 6 odorants, previously described in the literature as congruent with sweetness, was investigated at suprathreshold level in a sucrose solution. Ethyl butyrate and maltol were selected as they had the highest(More)
Group Shared Trees form a major component of most multicast routing protocols (e.g. PIM-SMv2, CBTv3). The shared trees are built by choosing one node as the center of the tree. The optimal location of a center under the constraints of minimal tree cost and delay for a particular group is an NP-complete problem. Current implementations of protocols decide on(More)
Context-awareness is a peculiar characteristic of an expanding set of applications that make use of a combination of restricted spatio-temporal locality and mobile communications, to deliver a variety of services. Opportunistic communications satisfy well the communication requirements of these applications, because they naturally incorporate context.(More)