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Ionic polymer-metal composites ͑IPMCs͒ consist of a perfluorinated ionomer membrane ͑usually Nafion ® or Flemion ® ͒ plated on both faces with a noble metal such as gold or platinum and neutralized with the necessary amount of counterions that balance the electrical charge of anions that are covalently fixed to the backbone ionomer. IPMCs are electroactive(More)
Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) consist of a perfluorinated ionomer membrane (usually Nafion ® or Flemion ®) plated on both faces with a noble metal such as gold or platinum and neutralized with a certain amount of counterions that balance the electrical charge of anions covalently fixed to the membrane backbone. IPMCs are electroactive materials(More)
9 10 The relative humidity (RH) dependence of the water permeability of cement is 11 calculated from the water concentration profile of a paste exposed to an RH 12 gradient and the desorption isotherm. The profile is measured using GARField, 13 standing for Gradient at Right Angles to Field, NMR. The isotherm is derived from 14 other earlier NMR(More)
Ionic polymer-metal composites ͑IPMCs͒ consist of a perfluorinated ionomer membrane ͑usually Nafion® or Flemion®͒ plated on both faces with a noble metal such as gold or platinum and neutralized with a certain amount of counterions that balance the electrical charge of anions covalently fixed to the backbone ionomer. IPMCs are electroactive materials with(More)
The results of one-and two-dimensional 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) pulsed field gradient (PFG) diffusometry studies of water in white cement paste with a water-to-cement ratio 0.4 and aged from 1 day to 1 year are reported. The study shows that the NMR-PFG method is primarily sensitive to the capillary porosity. Data is fit on the basis of a(More)
Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) consist of a perfluorinated ionomer membrane (usually Nafion ® or Flemion ®). The ionomer is plated on both faces with a noble metal such as gold or platinum. It is neutralized with a certain amount of counterions that balance the electrical charge of anions covalently fixed to the backbone membrane. IPMCs are(More)
Many mammalian species including non-human primates consume water in a body position not aided by gravity and it has been conjectured that oesophageal peristalsis overcomes gravity in humans. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of gravity on oesophageal peristalsis in humans in response to water swallows. Six females (30-43 years old) and(More)
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