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Apoptotic cell death is important for embryonic development, immune cell homeostasis, and pathogen elimination. Innate immune cells also undergo a very rapid form of cell death termed pyroptosis after activating the protease caspase-1. The hemichannel pannexin-1 has been implicated in both processes. In this study, we describe the characterization of(More)
Inflammasomes activate caspase-1 for processing and secretion of the cytokines interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and IL-18. Cryopyrin/NALP3/NLRP3 is an essential component of inflammasomes triggered by microbial ligands, danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), and crystals. Inappropriate Cryopyrin activity has been incriminated in the pathogenesis of gouty(More)
Protein ubiquitination provides an efficient and reversible mechanism to regulate cell cycle progression and checkpoint control. Numerous regulatory proteins direct the addition of ubiquitin to lysine residues on target proteins, and these are countered by an army of deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs). BRCA1-associated protein-1 (Bap1) is a ubiquitin(More)
Ab class switch recombination involves a recombination between two repetitive DNA sequences known as switch (S) regions that vary in length, content, and density of the repeats. Abs expressed by B cells are diversified by somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination. Both class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation are initiated by(More)
Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are often produced in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Three commonly used CHO host cells for generating stable cell lines to produce therapeutic proteins are dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) positive CHOK1, DHFR-deficient DG44, and DUXB11-based DHFR deficient CHO. Current Genentech commercial full-length antibody(More)
As part of the adaptive immune response, B cells alter their functional immunoglobulin (Ig) receptor genes through somatic hypermutation (SHM) and/or class switch recombination (CSR) via processes that are initiated by activation induced cytidine deaminase (AID). These genetic modifications are targeted at specific sequences known as Variable (V) and Switch(More)
Preceding antibody constant regions are switch (S) regions varying in length and repeat density that are targets of activation-induced cytidine deaminase. We asked how participating S regions influence each other to orchestrate rearrangements at the IgH locus by engineering mice in which the weakest S region, Sε, is replaced with prominent recombination(More)
The multidrug efflux complex AcrAB-TolC confers intrinsic drug resistance in Escherichia coli by pumping antibiotics out of the cell. We determined a low-resolution (20 A) structure of AcrA, the periplasmic component, by electron crystallography. Expressed with a His-tag at its carboxyl-terminus, the protein bound to lipid layers containing the(More)
Paired Ig-like type 2 receptor (PILR)α inhibitory receptor and its counterpart PILRβ activating receptor are coexpressed on myeloid cells. In this article, we report that PILRα, but not PILRβ, is elevated in human rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissue and correlates with inflammatory cell infiltration. Pilrα(-/-) mice produce more pathogenic cytokines during(More)
Zarrin Wenjun Ouyang, Flavius Martin, Wyne P. Lee and Ali A. Balazs, Tao Sai, Benjamin Haley, Philip E. Hass, Min Xu, Mariathasan, Jason DeVoss, Shahram Misaghi, Mercedesz Sophie Lehar, Vida Asghari, WeiYu Lin, Sanjeev Rio, Lu, Zhonghua Lin, Kai Barck, Judy Young, Mariela Del Lesch, Ivan Peng, Andrew Sebrell, Wilman Luk, Yanmei Sarah Kummerfeld, Gabriel(More)