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Plasma display panels ~PDPs! are a technology for large-area high-brightness flat panel displays. There is considerable interest in improving PDP efficiency by optimizing the cell design, input voltage characteristics, operating conditions and gas mixture. In this article, we report on a two-dimensional computer model for PDPs which has been used to(More)
Emerging 3-D multistrata system integration offers the capability for high density interstratum interconnects that have short lengths and low parasitics. However, 3-D integration is only one way to accomplish system integration and it must compete against established system integration options such as system-on-achip (SoC) and system-in-a-package. We(More)
Genetic diversity of 20 sugarcane accessions in Pakistan was studied using 21 random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. The mean genetic distance between the cultivars was 39.03%, demonstrating that a large part of the genome is similar among the accessions. This probably arises from a lack of parental diversity, with few clones, which are themselves(More)
Low-temperature plasma physics and technology are diverse and interdisciplinary fields. The plasma parameters can span many orders of magnitude and applications are found in quite different areas of daily life and industrial production. As a consequence, the trends in research, science and technology are difficult to follow and it is not easy to identify(More)
Low pressure ~,10 mTorr! inductively coupled plasma sources are being developed for etching and deposition of semiconductors and metals. In models for these devices, plasma dynamics are typically coupled to the electromagnetic fields through Ohm’s law, which implies that collisional heating is the dominant power transfer mechanism. In this article, we(More)
The spatial distributions of excited states in radio frequency electrical gas discharges have been observed to be dynamic functions of gas mixture, pressure, and applied voltage. Recent measurements of two-dimensional profiles of excited states in the Gaseous Electronics Conference reference cell ~GECRC! @McMillin and Zachariah, J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5538(More)
Past experiments have demonstrated that details of the external electrical circuitry can strongly influence the performance of radio frequency ~rf! plasma processing reactors. Seemingly minor changes in the circuit, such as changing cable lengths, can lead to significantly different plasma characteristics. To investigate these couplings, a plasma equipment(More)
BACKGROUND Vitamin A deficiency is considered to be a wide spread public health problem among preschool children in the developing countries. A pilot study for the nutritional problems in Pakistan showed that majority of the children in the study group was suffering from vitamin A deficiency. METHODS This study was carried out to assess the vitamin A(More)