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We derive a formula giving the frequency with which random drift shifts a population between alternative equilibria. This formula is valid when such shifts are rare (Ns much greater than 1), and applies over a wide range of mutation rates. When the number of mutations entering the population is low (4 N mu much less than 1), the rate of stochastic shifts(More)
The structure of an early M-intermediate of the wild-type bacteriorhodopsin photocycle formed by actinic illumination at 230 K has been determined by x-ray crystallography to a resolution of 2.0 A. Three-dimensional crystals were trapped by illuminating with actinic light at 230 K, followed by quenching in liquid nitrogen. Amide I, amide II, and other(More)
A PVC-membrane electrode based on a recently synthesized 18-membered macrocyclic diamide is presented. The electrode reveals a Nernstian potentiometric response for Co2+ over a wide concentration range (2.0 x 10(-6)-1.0 x 10(-2) M). The electrode has a response time of about 10 s and can be used for at least 2 months without any divergence. The proposed(More)
Despite extensive investigation, the precise mechanism controlling the opening of the cytoplasmic proton uptake pathway in bacteriorhodopsin (bR) has remained a mystery. From an analysis of the X-ray structure of the D96G/F171C/F219L triple mutant of bR and 60 independent molecular dynamics simulations of bR photointermediates, we report that the(More)
We show that in the continuum limit watersheds dividing drainage basins are Schramm-Loewner evolution (SLE) curves, being described by one single parameter κ. Several numerical evaluations are applied to ascertain this. All calculations are consistent with SLE(κ), with κ = 1.734 ± 0.005, being the only known physical example of an SLE with κ<2. This lies(More)
Bacteriorhodopsin (bR) is the sole protein component of the purple membrane of Halobacterium salinarium 1. The function of bR in vivo is to convert solar energy into a pH gradient across the cell membrane which the organism uses to drive ATP synthesis 2. Bacteriorhodopsin undergoes a light-induced cycle of physicochemical changes for for every proton it(More)
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