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There are growing numbers of recombinant proteins that have been expressed in milk. Thus one can consider the placement of any gene of interest under the control of the regulatory elements of a milk protein gene in a dairy farm animal. Among the transgene introducing techniques, only nuclear transfer (NT) allows 100 % efficiency and bypasses the mosaicism(More)
Introduction of exotic plants change soil microbial communities which may have detrimental ecological consequences for ecosystems. In this study, we examined the community structure and species richness of ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi associated with exotic pine plantations in relation to adjacent native ectomycorrhizal trees in Iran to elucidate the(More)
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are considered to exist in a ground state if shielded from differentiation triggers. Here we show that FGF4 and TGFβ signaling pathway inhibitors, designated R2i, not only provide the ground state pluripotency in production and maintenance of naïve ES cells from blastocysts of different mouse strains, but also maintain ES cells(More)
The Δ6-desaturase (Δ6D), also known as fatty acid desaturase 2, is a regulatory enzyme in de novo fatty acid synthesis, which has been linked to obesity and diabetes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of peroxisome proliferative-activated receptor δ (PPAR δ ) agonist and MEK/ERK1/2-dependent pathway on the expression of Δ6D in human(More)
OBJECTIVE In vitro production of a definitive endoderm (DE) is an important issue in stem cell-related differentiation studies and it can assist with the production of more efficient endoderm derivatives for therapeutic applications. Despite tremendous progress in DE differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), researchers have yet to discover(More)
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