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Many clustering methods require that the number of clusters believed present in a given data set be specified a priori, and a number of methods for estimating the number of clusters have been developed. However, the selection of the number of clusters is well recognized as a difficult and open problem and there is a need for methods which can shed light on(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare intraoperative complications of exteriorized and in situ uterine repair during elective cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia. METHODS This study was a randomized, single-blinded trial in 80 women undergoing elective cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia. Patients were randomly assigned to exteriorized or in situ uterine(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the agreement of transcutaneous carbon dioxide (TcPCO(2)) and end tidal carbon dioxide (PetCO(2)) with arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO(2)) values in infants < 28 weeks gestational age. STUDY DESIGN In all, 27 ventilated preterm infants were prospectively studied. PaCO(2) was compared with TcPCO(2) and PetCO(2) measured at three similar(More)
This paper considers a clustering method motivated by a multivariate analysis of variance model and computationally based on eigenanalysis (thus the term " spectral " in the title). Our focus is on large problems, and we present the method in the context of clustering genes using microarray expression data. We provide an eecient computational algorithm and(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to determine the fetal response to submaximal maternal exercise at 22 to 26 weeks in pregnancies with abnormal uterine artery Doppler. STUDY DESIGN This was a prospective comparison of singleton pregnancies with uteroplacental vascular insufficiency (UPVI) (mean uterine pulsatility index [PI] values >1.45 [n = 12])(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the minimum effective intravenous dose of oxytocin required for adequate uterine contraction after cesarean delivery for labor arrest. METHODS A randomized single-blinded study was undertaken in 30 parturients undergoing cesarean deliveries under epidural anesthesia for labor arrest despite intravenous oxytocin augmentation. Oxytocin(More)
OBJECTIVE The partogram is a pictorial representation of the progress of labour, used in an effort to enhance early recognition of dystocia and help avoid Caesarean section (CS). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of partogram use on the CS and obstetric intervention rates. METHODS We conducted a randomized controlled trial of use of(More)
PURPOSE Baricity is an important determinant of block characteristics of the spinal component of a combined spinal epidural (CSE) for labour analgesia. This study compares the analgesic efficacy and side effects of intrathecally administered plain and hyperbaric bupivacaine (both with fentanyl) during active labour. METHODS Sixty-two women in active(More)
OBJECTIVE Test the hypothesis that a placental function profile can reassure most high-risk women with normal test results yet accurately can identify a subset of women who are destined for major complications that will be attributable to placental disease. STUDY DESIGN This was a prospective study of 212 high-risk pregnancies that used the placental(More)
Given the rise in obesity rates, increasing capacity for bariatric surgery has become a focus for some provincial planners. Four types of bariatric procedures are now performed in Canada; however, funding for the procedures varies by jurisdiction. This article provides an update to our previous article documenting the volume of in-patient bariatric(More)