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The absorption of dietary fat is of increasing concern given the rise of obesity not only in the United States but throughout the developed world. This review explores what happens to dietary fat within the enterocyte. Absorbed fatty acids and monoacylglycerols are required to be bound to intracellular proteins and/or to be rapidly converted to(More)
Dietary long chain fatty acids are absorbed in the intestine, esterified to triacylglycerol, and packaged in the unique lipoprotein of the intestine, the chylomicron. The rate-limiting step in the transit of chylomicrons through the enterocyte is the exit of chylomicrons from the endoplasmic reticulum in prechylomicron transport vesicles (PCTV) that(More)
VLDLs (very-low-density lipoproteins) are synthesized in the liver and play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Following their biogenesis in hepatic ER (endoplasmic reticulum), nascent VLDLs are exported to the Golgi which is a physiologically regulatable event. We have previously shown that a unique ER-derived vesicle, the VTV(More)
Growth hormone receptor knockout mice (GHRKO) are characterized by high insulin sensitivity and extended lifespan. Interestingly, the secretory activity of visceral fat in GHRKO mice is altered, stimulating whole body insulin sensitivity. In this study, we transplanted normal (N) mice with visceral fat pads from GHRKO or N mice to determine the role of(More)
The regulation of lipid homeostasis by insulin is mediated in part by the enhanced transcription of the gene encoding SREBP-1c (sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c). Nascent SREBP-1c is synthesized and embedded in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and must be transported to the Golgi in coatomer protein II (COPII) vesicles where two sequential(More)
Steady increase in the incidence of atherosclerosis is becoming a major concern not only in the United States but also in other countries. One of the major risk factors for the development of atherosclerosis is high concentrations of plasma low-density lipoprotein, which are metabolic products of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). VLDLs are synthesized(More)
Intestinal dietary triacylglycerol absorption is a multi-step process. Triacylglycerol exit from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the rate-limiting step in the progress of the lipid from its apical absorption to its basolateral membrane export. Triacylglycerol is transported from the ER to the cis Golgi in a specialized vesicle, the pre-chylomicron(More)
The budding of vesicles from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that contains nascent proteins is regulated by COPII proteins. The mechanisms that regulate lipid-carrying pre-chylomicron transport vesicles (PCTVs) budding from the ER are unknown. To study the dependence of PCTV-ER budding on COPII proteins we examined protein and PCTV budding by using ER prepared(More)
The movement of VLDL [very-LDL (low-density lipoprotein)] from the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) to the Golgi is required for its eventual secretion from hepatocytes and represents a potential target in controlling elevated concentrations of its metabolite LDL, the major determinant of atherosclerosis. To study this process, an in vitro ER-budding assay was(More)
The rate-limiting step in the transit of absorbed dietary fat across the enterocyte is the generation of the pre-chylomicron transport vesicle (PCTV) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This vesicle does not require coatomer-II (COPII) proteins for budding from the ER membrane and contains vesicle-associated membrane protein 7, found in intestinal ER,(More)