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Protein dynamics take place on many time and length scales. Coarse-grained structure-based (Go) models utilize the funneled energy landscape theory of protein folding to provide an understanding of both long time and long length scale dynamics. All-atom empirical forcefields with explicit solvent can elucidate our understanding of short time dynamics with(More)
Recent experimental studies suggest that the mature GFP has an unconventional landscape composed of an early folding event with a typical funneled landscape, followed by a very slow search and rearrangement step into the locked, active chromophore-containing structure. As we have shown previously, the substantial difference in time scales is what generates(More)
The cytokine, interleukin-1b (IL-1b), adopts a b-trefoil fold. It is known to be much slower folding than similarly sized proteins, despite having a low contact order. Proteins are sufficiently well designed that their folding is not dominated by local energetic traps. Therefore, protein models that encode only the folded structure and are energetically(More)
In general, the energy landscapes of real proteins are sufficiently well designed that the depths of local energetic minima are small compared with the global bias of the native state. Because of the funneled nature of energy landscapes, models that lack energetic frustration have been able to capture the main structural features of the transition states(More)
Proteins fold into three-dimensional structures in a funneled energy landscape. This landscape is also used for functional activity. Frustration in this landscape can arise from the competing evolutionary pressures of biological function and reliable folding. Thus, the ensemble of partially folded states can populate multiple routes on this journey to the(More)
Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is the cytokine crucial to inflammatory and immune response. Two dominant routes are populated in the folding to native structure. These distinct routes are a result of the competition between early packing of the functional loops versus closure of the β-barrel to achieve efficient folding and have been observed both experimentally(More)
Comparative studies of proteins from a family have been used to understand the factors that determine the folding routes of proteins. It has been conjectured that the folding mechanism of ribonuclease-H (RNase-H) proteins is determined by the topology of their fold. To test this hypothesis, we computationally studied the folding of four proteins from the(More)
Having multiple domains in proteins can lead to partial folding and increased aggregation. Folding cooperativity, the all or nothing folding of a protein, can reduce this aggregation propensity. In agreement with bulk experiments, a coarse-grained structure-based model of the three-domain protein, E. coli Adenylate kinase (AKE), folds cooperatively. Domain(More)
When an amino-acid sequence cannot be optimized for both folding and function, folding can get compromised in favor of function. To understand this tradeoff better, we devise a novel method for extracting the "function-less" folding-motif of a protein fold from a set of structurally similar but functionally diverse proteins. We then obtain the β-trefoil(More)
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