Shabbar S Jaffar

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BACKGROUND Pneumonia is estimated to cause 2 million deaths every year in children. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most important cause of severe pneumonia. We aimed to assess the efficacy of a nine-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children. METHODS We undertook a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial in eastern Gambia. Children age(More)
BACKGROUND Identification of new ways to increase access to antiretroviral therapy in Africa is an urgent priority. We assessed whether home-based HIV care was as effective as was facility-based care. METHODS We undertook a cluster-randomised equivalence trial in Jinja, Uganda. 44 geographical areas in nine strata, defined according to ratio of urban and(More)
BACKGROUND In many HIV programmes in Africa, patients are assessed clinically and prepared for antiretroviral treatment over a period of 4-12 weeks. Mortality rates following initiation of ART are very high largely because patients present late with advanced disease. The rates of mortality and retention during the pre-treatment period are not well(More)
BACKGROUND In developing countries, pneumonia and meningitis due to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) are common in children under age 12 months and the mortality from meningitis is high. Protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines have brought Hib disease under control in industrialised countries. We did a double-blind randomised trial in The Gambia to(More)
OBJECTIVES To elucidate why the virulence of HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections differ in West African populations. STUDY DESIGN/METHOD Peripheral blood plasma virion RNA and cellular proviral DNA levels were measured in a cross-section of 59 HIV-1 and 49 HIV-2 singly infected individuals representing all stages of infection in The Gambia, West Africa. Novel(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of HIV and associated sociodemographic factors including mobility and migration in a rural population in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. METHODS A household-based HIV serosurvey of a population that has been under longitudinal demographic surveillance since 2000. All residents (women aged 15-49 years; men aged 15-54(More)
BACKGROUND Increasing resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine is leading to a decline in its effectiveness. We aimed to assess the safety profile of chlorproguanil-dapsone (CD), and to compare the safety and efficacy of this drug with that of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) as treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria. METHODS We undertook a(More)
Rotavirus gastroenteritis is the major cause of severe dehydrating diarrhea in children worldwide. This study compares rotavirus diarrhea in 351 children in a community-based cohort and 343 children admitted to a hospital during the same period. Clinical information and fecal specimens were obtained during diarrheal episodes. Fecal samples were screened for(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in infants (IPTi) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in an area of intense, seasonal transmission. DESIGN Cluster randomised placebo controlled trial, with 96 clusters allocated randomly to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine or placebo in blocks of eight. INTERVENTIONS Children(More)
BACKGROUND Prospective data on incidence, characteristics, and risk factors for cryptococcal meningitis immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (CM-IRIS) are lacking. METHODS Prospective study of 65 antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive HIV-infected cryptococcal meningitis (CM) patients, who started ART after initiation of antifungal treatment. CM-IRIS(More)