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Schistosome eggs are trapped in host liver and elicit severe hepatic granulomatous inflammation, which can lead to periportal fibrosis, portal hypertension, hemorrhage, or even death in the host. It was reported that the macrophage plays an important role in host immune responses to schistosome infection. Nitric oxide (NO) produced by classically activated(More)
BACKGROUND The current knowledge of immunological responses to schistosomiasis, a major tropical helminthic disease, is insufficient, and a better understanding of these responses would support vaccine development or therapies to control granuloma-associated immunopathology. CD4(+) T cells play critical roles in both host immune responses against parasitic(More)
In chronic infectious diseases, such as schistosomiasis, pathogen growth and immunopathology are affected by the induction of a proper balanced Th1/Th2 response to the pathogen and by antigen-triggered activation-induced T cell death. Here, by using S. japonicum infection or schistosome antigens-immunized mouse model, or antigens in vitro stimulation, we(More)
BACKGROUND Schistosomiasis remains a major public health problem in endemic countries and is caused by infections with any one of three primary schistosome species. Although there are no vaccines available to date, this strategy appears feasible since natural immunity develops in individuals suffering from repeated infection during a lifetime. Since(More)
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is highly expressed in mammalian brains and is involved in the pathophysiology of cerebral disorders, including stroke, tumors, infections, hydrocephalus, epilepsy, and traumatic brain injury. We found that AQP4-deficient mice were hypersensitive to stimulations such as 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) or(More)
BACKGROUND Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands have been explored as vaccine adjuvants for tumor and virus immunotherapy, but few TLR ligands affecting schistosoma vaccines have been characterized. Previously, we developed a partially protective DNA vaccine encoding the 26-kDa glutathione S-transferase of Schistosoma japonicum (pVAX1-Sj26GST). (More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate and compare the different effects of soluble adult worm antigen (SWA) and soluble egg antigen (SEA) of Schistosoma japonicum on the differentiation of the splenocytes and CD4+ T cells of mice. METHODS The splenocytes and CD4+ T cells were prepared from the spleens of mice immunized with SWA or SEA, or the splenocytes of normal(More)
BACKGROUND Parasitic helminths need to suppress the host immune system to establish chronic infections. Paradoxically, immunosuppression induced by the worm also benefits the host by limiting excessive inflammation and tissue damage, which remains the major cause leading to serious morbidity and mortality. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are key immune(More)
Chronic schistosome infection results in the suppression of host immune responses, allowing long-term schistosome survival and restricting pathology. Current theories suggest that Treg play an important role in this regulation. However, the mechanism of Treg induction during schistosome infection is still unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the(More)
CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) do not only influence self-antigen specific immune responses, but also dampen the protective effect induced by a number of vaccines. The impact of CD4(+)CD25(+) Tregs on vaccines against schistosomiasis, a neglected tropical disease that is a major public health concern, however, has not been examined. In this study,(More)