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Proteins in the B cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) family are key regulators of the apoptotic process. This family comprises proapoptotic and prosurvival proteins, and shifting the balance toward the latter is an established mechanism whereby cancer cells evade apoptosis. The therapeutic potential of directly inhibiting prosurvival proteins was unveiled with the(More)
Overexpression of the prosurvival Bcl-2 family members (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1) is commonly associated with tumor maintenance, progression, and chemoresistance. We previously reported the discovery of ABT-737, a potent, small-molecule Bcl-2 family protein inhibitor. A major limitation of ABT-737 is that it is not orally bioavailable, which would limit(More)
The molecular chaperone HSP90 has been shown to facilitate cancer cell survival by stabilizing key proteins responsible for a malignant phenotype. We report here the results of parallel fragment-based drug design approaches in the design of novel HSP90 inhibitors. Initial aminopyrimidine leads were elaborated using high-throughput organic synthesis to yield(More)
A-1155463, a highly potent and selective BCL-XL inhibitor, was discovered through nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) fragment screening and structure-based design. This compound is substantially more potent against BCL-XL-dependent cell lines relative to our recently reported inhibitor, WEHI-539, while possessing none of its inherent pharmaceutical(More)
Myeloid cell leukemia 1 (MCL-1) is a BCL-2 family protein that has been implicated in the progression and survival of multiple tumor types. Herein we report a series of MCL-1 inhibitors that emanated from a high throughput screening (HTS) hit and progressed via iterative cycles of structure-guided design. Advanced compounds from this series exhibited(More)
The ability of a cancer cell to avoid apoptosis is crucial to tumorigenesis and can also contribute to chemoresistance. The Bcl-2 family of prosurvival proteins (Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, Bcl-w, Mcl-1, and A1) plays a key role in these processes. We previously reported the discovery of ABT-263 (navitoclax), a potent small-molecule inhibitor of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL,(More)
Survivin, one of the most tumor-specific gene products, has been implicated in both anti-apoptosis and cytokinesis. However, the mechanism by which survivin regulates these two different processes is still elusive. Here, we show that survivin binds to the catalytic domain of Aurora-B. We demonstrate that in the presence of survivin, Aurora-B phosphorylates(More)
Biomedical application of nanotechnology is a rapidly developing area that raises new prospect in the improvement of diagnosis and treatment of human diseases. The ability to incorporate drugs or genes into a functionalized nanoparticle demonstrates a new era in pharmacotherapy for delivering drugs or genes selectively to tissues or cells. It is envisioned(More)
Previous studies of human and nonhuman primate lentiviral entry mechanisms indicate a predominant use of pH-independent pathways, although more recent studies of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 entry appear to reveal the use of a low-pH-dependent entry pathway in certain target cells. To expand the characterization of the specificity of lentiviral entry(More)
While the determination of mechanical properties of a hard scaffold is relatively straightforward, the mechanical testing of a soft tissue scaffold poses significant challenges due in part to its fragility. Here, we report a new approach for characterizing the stiffness and elastic modulus of a soft scaffold through atomic force microscopy (AFM)(More)