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Mammalian adenylyl cyclases have two homologous cytoplasmic domains (C1 and C2). The first cytoplasmic domain of type I enzyme (IC1) and the second cytoplasmic domain of type II enzyme (IIC2-delta 3, a construct in which 36 N-terminal amino acids of the C2 region are deleted) were expressed and purified to homogeneity. Alone, each had no adenylyl cyclase(More)
In the current study, we investigated the neurochemical basis for the previously reported predominance of stimulatory mu-opioid signaling in guinea pig longitudinal muscle/myenteric plexus (LMMP) preparations after chronic in vivo morphine exposure. As expected, recombinant Gsalpha (rGsalpha) dose-dependently stimulated adenylyl cyclase (AC) activity in(More)
Forskolin potently activates all cloned mammalian adenylyl cyclases except type IX by interacting with two homologous cytoplasmic domains (C1 and C2) that form the catalytic core. A mutational analysis of the IIC2 protein (C2 domain from type II adenylyl cyclase) and forskolin analogs suggests that Ser942 interacts with the 7-acetyl group of forskolin. The(More)
The interaction between the alpha subunit of G protein Gs (Gsalpha) and the two cytoplasmic domains of adenylyl cyclase (C1 and C2) is a key step in the stimulation of cAMP synthesis by hormones. Mutational analysis reveals that three discrete regions in the primary sequence of adenylyl cyclase affect the EC50 values for Gsalpha activation and thus are the(More)
The edema factor exotoxin produced by Bacillus anthracis is an adenylyl cyclase that is activated by calmodulin (CaM) at resting state calcium concentrations in infected cells. A C-terminal 60-kDa fragment corresponding to the catalytic domain of edema factor (EF3) was cloned, overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and purified. The N-terminal 43-kDa domain(More)
Mammalian adenylyl cyclases have two homologous cytoplasmic domains (C1 and C2), and both domains are required for the high enzymatic activity. Mutational and genetic analyses of type I and soluble adenylyl cyclases suggest that the C2 domain is catalytically active and the C1 domain is not; the role of the C1 domain is to promote the catalytic activity of(More)
Mammalian membrane-bound adenylyl cyclase consists of two highly conserved cytoplasmic domains (C1a and C2a) separated by a less conserved connecting region, C1b, and one of two transmembrane domains, M2. The C1a and C2a domains form a catalytic core that can be stimulated by forskolin and the stimulatory G protein subunit alpha (Galpha(s)). In this study,(More)
To date, molecular systematics of Myxogastria has been based primarily on small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) and elongation factor 1-alpha (EF-1α) genes. To establish a natural classification system for the organisms, we examined phylogenetic relationships among myxogastrian species using cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and SSU rRNA genes. Twenty(More)
Using labelled streptavidin-biotin (LSAB) method, we examined the expression of nucleoside diphosphate kinase(NDPK), the product of metastasis suppressor gene nm23, in human lung cancer. Of 88 patients tested, 48 (54.5%) showed positive staining. The positive staining rate was higher in adenocarcinoma (28/42, 66.7%) than in squamous cell carcinoma (20/46,(More)