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This study sought to identify potential targets for acute stroke therapy that can be exploited pharmacologically beyond the current 4.5h time limit for clinical administration of recombinant tissue-plasminogen activator. We used PCR arrays to initially screen the temporal expression profiles of several chemokine-related genes in the brain at 4, 24 and 72h(More)
Intracerebral administration of the angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) agonist, CGP42112, is neuroprotective in a rat model of ischemic stroke. To explore further its possible cellular target(s) and therapeutic utility, we firstly examined whether CGP42112 may exert direct protective effects on primary neurons following glucose deprivation in vitro.(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Expression of numerous chemokine-related genes is increased in the brain after ischemic stroke. Here, we tested whether post-stroke administration of a chemokine-binding protein (CBP), derived from the parapoxvirus bovine papular stomatitis virus, might reduce infiltration of leukocytes into the brain and consequently limit infarct(More)
We tested whether significant leukocyte infiltration occurs in a mouse model of permanent cerebral ischemia. C57BL6/J male mice underwent either permanent (3 or 24 hours) or transient (1 or 2 hours+22- to 23-hour reperfusion) middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Using flow cytometry, we observed ∼15,000 leukocytes (CD45(+high) cells) in the ischemic(More)
Previously we showed that INCB3344, a CCR2 antagonist, inhibits transmigration of Ly6C(hi) monocytes into the brain after ischemia-reperfusion. Here we tested the effect of CCR2 inhibition during permanent cerebral ischemia. Mice were administered either vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide/carboxymethylcellulose) or INCB3344 (30 or 100mg/kg IP) 1h before middle(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Ly6C(hi) monocytes are generally thought to exert a proinflammatory role in acute tissue injury, although their impact after injuries to the central nervous system is poorly defined. CC chemokine receptor 2 is expressed on Ly6C(hi) monocytes and plays an essential role in their extravasation and transmigration into the brain after(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Experimental studies indicate that estrogen typically, but not universally, has a neuroprotective effect in stroke. Ischemic stroke increases membrane-bound G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) distribution and expression in the brain of male but not female mice. We hypothesized that GPER activation may have a greater(More)
The novel estrogen receptor, G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER, previously named GPR30), is widely distributed throughout the male and female brain and, thus, could potentially play a role in estrogen-mediated neuroprotective effects in diseases such as stroke. We hypothesized that GPER distribution and expression in the brain of male, intact(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by Nox2 oxidase are reported to contribute to infarct damage following cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. Here we have examined for the first time the role of Nox2 expression in outcomes following permanent focal cerebral ischemia. Ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery filament occlusion (MCAO) for 24h in(More)
Recent studies have demonstrated that angiotensin IV (Ang IV) provides protection against brain injury caused by cerebral ischemia. Ang IV is a potent inhibitor of insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP). Therefore, we examined the effect of IRAP gene inactivation on neuroprotection following transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) in mice. IRAP(More)