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In view of similarities between the behavioral, biochemical, and electrophysiological effects of amphetamine and stress, we tested the hypothesis that presentation of a stressor, mild tail pressure, can sensitize an animal to the later effects of amphetamine, and vice versa. Our findings supported this hypothesis and suggest that amphetamine and at least(More)
Animal models of stress have the potential to provide information about the course and etiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To date, however, there have been no systematic approaches for evaluating the relevance of animal models of stress to PTSD. It has been established in the animal literature that different types of stress paradigms lead to(More)
We have shown that tolerance to the behavioral effects of nicotine is partially dependent on conditioned environmental cues that predict drug delivery. The present research extends this finding to physiological effects of nicotine by assessing both the appetite-suppressing and adrenocortical-activating effects of nicotine, as measured by plasma(More)
We have shown that conditioned tolerance develops to some of the behavioral and endocrine effects of nicotine in rats. Other investigators have suggested that tolerance to multiple nicotine injections in mice may be due, in part, to elevated plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels, since repeated nicotine injections are associated with elevated CORT,chronically(More)
The principal finding of this manuscript is that the incidence of catalepsy observed in the rat after a single administration of low, clinically relevant doses of the dopamine receptor antagonists and antipsychotic agents, haloperidol and fluphenazine hydrochloride, grows over time such that one re-exposure to the same compound up to 8 weeks later results(More)
Rats on a 4 hr/day feeding schedule showed anorexia after i.p. injections of several 'serotonergic' agents. Tolerance developed within a few days of daily administration of all drugs except fluoxetine. The tolerant animals were then given a cross-tolerance test with a different agent, either the next day or after a drug free washout period. Rats which were(More)
Sniffing and licking components of amphetamine-induced stereotypy were studied separately during chronic drug treatment. Sniffing showed a gradual increase, or sensitization, in intensity and duration. By contrast, licking developed tolerance for approximately the first 21 days, followed by a progressive increase. Stereotypy is therefore not a homogeneous(More)