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Total brain volume (BV) and the volumes of brain substructures are influenced by genes, the magnitude of which changes with age. One approach to the examination of genetic influences on the volumes of brain structures is to determine their heritability using twin and family studies. We reviewed published cross-sectional studies which examined heritability(More)
The relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to brain structure change throughout the lifespan. Brain structures have been reported to be highly heritable in middle-aged individuals and younger; however, the influence of genes on brain structure is less studied in older adults. We performed a magnetic resonance imaging study of 236 older(More)
Twin studies have shown that many aspects of brain structure are heritable, suggesting a strong genetic contribution to brain structure. Less is known about functional aspects of the brain, in particular biologically relevant metabolites in the brain such as those measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (((1))H MRS), N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA),(More)
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