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Herbals or dietary supplements are not regulated as drugs by the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) although many may have associated therapeutic effects and toxicities. Therefore, the immunomodulatory effects of the herbal extract Panax notoginseng on cultured macrophages (RAW264.7 cells) were investigated to address potential therapeutic(More)
BACKGROUND Celiac disease (CeD) is a common gluten-sensitive autoimmune enteropathy. A gluten-free diet is an effective treatment, but compliance is demanding; hence, new treatment strategies for CeD are required. OBJECTIVE Parasitic helminths hold promise for treating inflammatory disorders, so we examined the influence of experimental hookworm infection(More)
In the developed world, declining prevalence of some parasitic infections correlates with increased incidence of allergic and autoimmune disorders. Moreover, experimental human infection with some parasitic worms confers protection against inflammatory diseases in phase 2 clinical trials. Parasitic worms manipulate the immune system by secreting(More)
The intestinal microbiota plays a critical role in the development of the immune system. Recent investigations have highlighted the potential of helminth therapy for treating a range of inflammatory disorders, including celiac disease (CeD); however, the mechanisms by which helminths modulate the immune response of the human host and ameliorate CeD(More)
Immunomodulatory components of helminths offer great promise as an entirely new class of biologics for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Here, we discuss the emerging themes in helminth-driven immunomodulation in the context of therapeutic drug discovery. We broadly define the approaches that are currently applied by researchers to identify these(More)
Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases (TIMPs) are a multifunctional family of proteins that orchestrate extracellular matrix turnover, tissue remodelling and other cellular processes. In parasitic helminths, such as hookworms, TIMPs have been proposed to play key roles in the host-parasite interplay, including invasion of and establishment in the vertebrate(More)
Na-ASP-2 is an efficacious hookworm vaccine antigen. However, despite elucidation of its crystal structure and studies addressing its immunobiology, the function of Na-ASP-2 has remained elusive. We probed a 9000-protein human proteome microarray with Na-ASP-2 and showed binding to CD79A, a component of the B-cell antigen receptor complex. Na-ASP-2 bound to(More)
Evidence from human studies and mouse models shows that infection with parasitic helminths has a suppressive effect on the pathogenesis of some inflammatory diseases. Recently, we and others have shown that some of the suppressive effects of hookworms reside in their excretory/secretory (ES) products. Here, we demonstrate that ES products of the hookworm(More)
In the developed world, declining prevalence of parasitic infections correlates with increased incidence of allergic and autoimmune disorders. Current treatments for these chronic inflammatory conditions have little to no effect on their prevalence and are referred to as "controllers" rather than cures. There has been limited success in therapeutically(More)
The environmental contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), causes immune suppression via activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Dendritic cells (DCs), the professional antigen-presenting cells in the immune system, are adversely affected by TCDD. We hypothesized that TCDD alters DC homeostasis, resulting in a loss of DCs in naive mice.(More)