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Nerve growth factor (NGF) induces neurite outgrowth and promotes survival of embryonic sensory and sympathetic neurons in culture. In vivo, NGF decreases the extent of naturally occurring cell death in developing sympathetic ganglia and protects cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain and caudatoputamen. NGF interacts with the low-affinity p75 receptor(More)
The trkC gene is expressed throughout the mammalian nervous system and encodes a series of tyrosine protein kinase isoforms that serve as receptors for neurotrophin-3 (NT3), a member of the nerve growth factor (NGF) family of neurotrophic factors. One of these isoforms, gp145trkC/TrkC K1, mediates the trophic properties of NT3 in cultured cells. Here we(More)
Neurotrophin-4 is a novel member of the nerve growth factor family of neurotrophins recently isolated from Xenopus and viper DNA. We now report that the Xenopus NT-4 protein (XNT-4) can mediate some of its biological properties through gp145trkB, a murine tyrosine protein kinase previously identified as a primary receptor for the related brain-derived(More)
trkB is a tyrosine protein kinase gene highly related to trk, a proto-oncogene that encodes a receptor for nerve growth factor (NGF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3). trkB expression is confined to structures of the central and peripheral nervous systems, suggesting it also encodes a receptor for neurotrophic factors. Here we show that brain-derived neurotrophic(More)
vav is a human locus that appears to be specifically expressed in cells of hematopoietic origin regardless of their differentiation lineage. This gene was first identified as a result of its malignant activation during the course of gene transfer assays (Katzav, S., Martin-Zanca, D., and Barbacid, M. EMBO J., 8: 2283-2290, 1989). In this study, we report(More)
Previous studies have suggested that the vav protooncogene plays an important role in hematopoiesis. To study this further, we have ablated the vav protooncogene by homologous recombination in embryonic stem (ES) cells. Homozygous vav (-/-) ES clones differentiate normally in culture and generate cells of erythroid, myeloid and mast cell lineages. Mice(More)
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog therapy is useful in treating uterine and some extrauterine smooth muscle tumors. These smooth muscle tumors have been demonstrated to have estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor immunoreactivity. The estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor immunoreactivity of smooth muscle tumors of the skin has not been(More)
Thalidomide caused no significant alteration in the activity of glutamic decarboxylase in extracts of brain or of glutamic dehydrogenase or glutamic oxalacetic transaminase in extracts of brain or liver when added in vitro or injected into normal mice. Administered to pregnant mice, thalidomide had no effect on the activity of the latter enzymes in extracts(More)
Mammals have extremely limited regenerative capabilities; however, axolotls are profoundly regenerative and can replace entire limbs. The mechanisms underlying limb regeneration remain poorly understood, partly because the enormous and incompletely sequenced genomes of axolotls have hindered the study of genes facilitating regeneration. We assembled and(More)
Matching appendage size to body size is fundamental to animal function. Generating an appropriately-sized appendage is a robust process executed during development which is also critical for regeneration. When challenged, larger animals are programmed to regenerate larger limbs than smaller animals within a single species. Understanding this process has(More)
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