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This article presents a real-time GPU-based post-filtering method for rendering acceptable depth-of-field effects suited for virtual reality. Blurring is achieved by nonlinearly interpolating mipmap images generated from a pinhole image. Major artifacts common in the post-filtering techniques such as bilinear magnification artifact, intensity leakage, and(More)
— This study investigates the effect of update rate on the perceived quality of haptic virtual textures, focusing on one type of perceived instability called " buzzing. " Buzzing refers to the high-frequency noises that may emanate from a force-feedback device during haptic texture rendering. We first present a simulation of a haptic texture rendering(More)
This paper presents a quantitative characterization of the instability that a human user often experiences while interacting with a virtual textured surface rendered with a force-reflecting haptic interface. First, we quantified the degree of stability/ instability during haptic texture rendering through psychophysical experiments. The stiffness of the(More)
The force-constancy hypothesis states that the user of a force-feedback device maintains a constant penetration force when stroking virtual surfaces in order to perceive their topography. The hypothesis was developed to address a real-world data perceptualization problem where the perception of surface topography was distorted when the surface stiffness was(More)
ƒ Purpose: This research is aimed at developing a surgical robot for spinal fusion and its control framework that provides higher operation accuracy, greater flexibility of robot position control, and improved ergonomics. ƒ Design/Methodology/Approach: A human-guided robot for the spinal fusion surgery has been developed with a dexterous end-effector that(More)