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This article presents a real-time GPU-based post-filtering method for rendering acceptable depth-of-field effects suited for virtual reality. Blurring is achieved by nonlinearly interpolating mipmap images generated from a pinhole image. Major artifacts common in the post-filtering techniques such as bilinear magnification artifact, intensity leakage, and(More)
— This study investigates the effect of update rate on the perceived quality of haptic virtual textures, focusing on one type of perceived instability called " buzzing. " Buzzing refers to the high-frequency noises that may emanate from a force-feedback device during haptic texture rendering. We first present a simulation of a haptic texture rendering(More)
In this paper, we present an experimental study in which we tested the feasibility of a hybrid haptic assistance scheme that combines haptic guidance and disturbance. In our hybrid method, haptic guidance is used in the initial phase of learning, but it is progressively turned into haptic disturbance as the learner's performance improves. The purpose of(More)
This paper presents a quantitative characterization of the instability that a human user often experiences while interacting with a virtual textured surface rendered with a force-reflecting haptic interface. First, we quantified the degree of stability/ instability during haptic texture rendering through psychophysical experiments. The stiffness of the(More)
The force-constancy hypothesis states that the user of a force-feedback device maintains a constant penetration force when stroking virtual surfaces in order to perceive their topography. The hypothesis was developed to address a real-world data perceptualization problem where the perception of surface topography was distorted when the surface stiffness was(More)
ƒ Purpose: This research is aimed at developing a surgical robot for spinal fusion and its control framework that provides higher operation accuracy, greater flexibility of robot position control, and improved ergonomics. ƒ Design/Methodology/Approach: A human-guided robot for the spinal fusion surgery has been developed with a dexterous end-effector that(More)