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Gap junctions are intercellular channels formed by the serial, head to head arrangement of two hemichannels. Each hemichannel is an oligomer of six protein subunits, which in vertebrates are encoded by the connexin gene family. All intercellular channels formed by connexins are sensitive to the relative difference in the membrane potential between coupled(More)
Intercellular channels formed by connexins (gap junctions) are sensitive to the application of transjunctional voltage (V(j)), to which they gate by the separate actions of their serially arranged hemichannels (Harris, A. L., D. C. Spray, and M. V. L. Bennett. 1981. J. Gen. Physiol. 77:95-117). Single channel studies of both intercellular and conductive(More)
The fully open state of heterotypic gap junction channels formed by pairing cells expressing connexin 32 (Cx32) with those expressing connexin 26 (Cx26) rectifies in a way that cannot be predicted from the current-voltage (I-V) relation of either homotypic channel. Using a molecular genetic analysis, we demonstrate that charged amino acids positioned in the(More)
Previous studies have shown that charge substitutions in the amino terminus of a chimeric connexin, Cx32*43E1, which forms unapposed hemichannels in Xenopus oocytes, can result in a threefold difference in unitary conductance and alter the direction and amount of open channel current rectification. Here, we determine the charge selectivity of Cx32*43E1(More)
Voltage is an important parameter that regulates the conductance of both intercellular and plasma membrane channels (undocked hemichannels) formed by the 21 members of the mammalian connexin gene family. Connexin channels display two forms of voltage-dependence, rectification of ionic currents and voltage-dependent gating. Ionic rectification results either(More)
The relationship between the loss of connexin 32 function and clinical manifestations of X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMTX) disease is unknown. Here, we report that eight of nine CMTX mutations investigated form channels with measurable electrical conductance. Single-channel studies of two mutations demonstrate reduced junctional permeability caused by a(More)
The connexins are a family of homologous integral membrane proteins that form channels that provide a low resistance pathway for the transmission of electrical signals and the diffusion of small ions and non-electrolytes between coupled cells. Individuals carrying mutations in the gene encoding connexin 32 (Cx32), a gap junction protein expressed in the(More)
There is good evidence supporting the view that the transjunctional voltage sensor (V(j)-sensor) of Cx32 and other Group 1 connexins is contained within a segment of the N-terminus that contributes to the formation of the channel pore. We have shown that the addition of negatively charged amino acid residues at several positions within the first 10 amino(More)
Channels formed by connexins display two distinct types of voltage-dependent gating, termed V(j)- or fast-gating and loop- or slow-gating. Recent studies, using metal bridge formation and chemical cross-linking have identified a region within the channel pore that contributes to the formation of the loop-gate permeability barrier. The conformational changes(More)
The hypothalamus is a key element of the neural circuits that control energy homeostasis. Specific neuronal populations within the hypothalamus are sensitive to a variety of homeostatic indicators such as circulating nutrient levels and hormones that signal circulating glucose and body fat content. Central injection of apelin secreted by adipose tissues(More)